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  1. Subcapsular hepatic hematoma is a rare and life-threatening complication of pregnancy. It is most commonly associated with severe preeclampsia and hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets sy...

    Authors: Kiel Luhning, Hilary MacCormick, Bruce Macaulay, Marianna Saunders and Catherine Craig

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:625

    Content type: Case report

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  2. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic is predicted to have a net negative effect on tuberculosis control, with an estimated excess of 6.3 million tuberculosis cases and 1.4 million deaths by 2025. Programmatic...

    Authors: Genesis P. Aguillón-Durán, Ericka Prieto-Martínez, Doris Ayala, Juan García Jr., John M. Thomas III, Juan Ignacio García, Brandon Michael Henry, Jordi B. Torrelles, Joanne Turner, Eder Ledezma-Campos and Blanca I. Restrepo

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:621

    Content type: Case report

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  3. The association of inflammatory myopathy and myasthenia gravis is a rarely described entity whose clinical presentation has always been intriguing because of the great clinical similarity between these two pat...

    Authors: Abdelkhaleq Maaroufi, Naoufal Assoufi, Mohamed Amine Essaoudi and Jamal Fatihi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:616

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Patients with gamma-hydroxybutyric acid withdrawal symptoms are at high risk of developing organic delirium, which can be fatal. The recommended first-line treatment is benzodiazepines, but treatment-resistant...

    Authors: Mads F. Kjærgaard, Poul Videbech, Jens J. Nørbæk and Bjørn H. Ebdrup

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:596

    Content type: Case report

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  5. Diagnosing urinary incontinence from organic causes such as ectopic ureter is particularly important because of the potential for cure by surgical correction. The prevalence of ectopic ureter is uncertain beca...

    Authors: Demisew Amenu, Andebet Asmare and Ahmed Siraj

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:617

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a disease with a poor prognosis and has been associated with increased lung cancer incidence.

    Authors: C. Niel, C. Ricordel, T. Guy, M. Kerjouan, B. De Latour, D. Chiforeanu, M. Lederlin and S. Jouneau

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:595

    Content type: Case report

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  7. A decrease in bone mineral density is common in patients with Williams syndrome. However, appropriate management for osteoporosis in Williams syndrome patients has not been established. We report the case of a...

    Authors: Masashi Uehara, Yukio Nakamura, Takako Suzuki, Noriko Sakai and Jun Takahashi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:594

    Content type: Case report

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  8. The chorioretinal inflammatory lesions occurring in punctate inner choroiditis evolve into punched-out atrophic scars. Typically, the progression is gradual. We report a case of highly myopic punctate inner ch...

    Authors: Yuka Kasuya, Yuji Inoue, Satoru Inoda, Yusuke Arai, Hidenori Takahashi, Hidetoshi Kawashima and Yasuo Yanagi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:593

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Autoimmune hypophysitis is a rare condition that often results in enlargement of the pituitary gland and hypopituitarism due to inflammatory infiltration. Management of autoimmune hypophysitis can include long...

    Authors: Maria Kruse, Thomas Bastholm Olesen, Ljubo Markovic, Dorte Glintborg and Marianne Skovsager Andersen

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:591

    Content type: Case report

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  10. While it is the most common thoracic venous anomaly, a persistent left vena cava superior may present in atypical variations, which are important to consider during clinical management.

    Authors: Sophie Lengning, René Aschenbach, P. Christian Schulze and Marcus Franz

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:583

    Content type: Case report

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  11. In this report, we describe a very challenging case of a patient with secondary Evans syndrome caused by severe coronavirus disease 2019 infection in a pregnant full-term woman.

    Authors: Damai Santosa, Muchlis A. U. Sofro, Farida, Nurvita Nindita, Eko A. Pangarsa, Budi Setiawan, Daniel Rizky and Catharina Suharti

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:606

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Complex orthoplastic lower limb trauma in individuals with multiple injuries requires considerable resources and interdisciplinary collaboration for good outcomes. We present the first reported end-to-side fre...

    Authors: Dallan Dargan, Raghuram Lakshminarayan and Cher Bing Chuo

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:601

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Adult patients with coronavirus disease present primarily with respiratory symptoms, but children and some adults may display a more systemic inflammatory syndrome with rash, fever, mucosal changes, and elevat...

    Authors: Catherine A. Gao, James M. Walter and Jane E. Dematte D’Amico

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:590

    Content type: Case report

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  14. Parsonage–Turner syndrome is an acute peripheral neuropathy that affects the upper brachial plexus region. Previously published reports demonstrate that the condition can be triggered by surgery, infection, au...

    Authors: Bruno Kusznir Vitturi, Marina Grandis, Sabrina Beltramini, Andrea Orsi, Angelo Schenone, Giancarlo Icardi and Paolo Durando

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:589

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is the third member of the coronavirus family to cause global concern in the twenty-first century. Pregnant women are particularly at higher risk of developing s...

    Authors: Somayeh Moeindarbary, Salmeh Dadgar, Parvaneh Layegh, Zahra Shahriari, Faezeh Fayyaz, Sina Danesteh, Mahdi Rafiee and Milad Bahrami

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:588

    Content type: Case report

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  16. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is an exceedingly rare thrombotic microangiopathy caused by accelerated activation of the alternative complement pathway.

    Authors: Christine J. Kurian, Zachary French, Patrick Kukulich, Matthew Lankiewicz, Sushil Ghimire, Omar H. Maarouf, Sanaa Rizk and Ruben Rhoades

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:587

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Psychiatric disorders increase risk of neuropsychiatric disease and poor outcomes, yet little is known about the neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 in the psychiatric population. The primary objective...

    Authors: Emma A. van Reekum, Tea Rosic, Anjali Sergeant, Nitika Sanger, Myanca Rodrigues, Reid Rebinsky, Balpreet Panesar, Eve Deck, Nayeon Kim, Julia Woo, Alessia D’Elia, Alannah Hillmer, Alexander Dufort, Stephanie Sanger, Lehana Thabane, Lawrence Mbuagbaw…

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:586

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Viewing the existing literature, one can find several documents about dislocation of the peroneal tendons. Clinical findings, diagnostics, and therapy are well described. Instead, the list of documents describ...

    Authors: Johannes Riecke, Max Müller, Andreas Bölderl and Konstantin Genelin

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:585

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Leptospirosis is a common zoonotic infection caused by the spirochete Leptospira. The disease is more prevalent in the tropics, causing subclinical to severe illness leading to high morbidity and mortality.

    Authors: Manana Dewage Sankani Vishvara Kularathna, Senanayake Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage Kularatne, Manoji Pathirage and Pala Thanthirige Madhushi Anuradha Nanayakkara

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:584

    Content type: Case report

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  20. Transcranial direct current stimulation, a therapeutic modality to modulate the excitability of injured and uninjured brain hemispheres in stroke patients, is expected to be effective in treating upper limb pa...

    Authors: Koichiro Hirayama, Takeshi Fuchigami and Shu Morioka

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:582

    Content type: Case report

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  21. Aplastic anemia is an intractable disease characterized by pancytopenia, susceptibility to infection, and difficulty in achieving hemostasis. In patients with severe periodontal disease and aplastic anemia, sp...

    Authors: Satoru Morikawa, Kazuya Watanabe, Satoshi Usuda, Yoko Miyashita and Taneaki Nakagawa

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:581

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Methotrexate is an anticancer drug from the antimetabolite class. It is also used in gynecology and obstetrics and is the molecule of choice for the medical treatment of ectopic pregnancies. We report a case o...

    Authors: Valéry Refeno, Naharisoa Giannie Rasamimanana, Baco Abdallah Abasse, Malalafinaritra Patrick Marco Ramarokoto, Mahefaniaina Jean Eustache Fanomezantsoa and Pierana Gabriel Randaoharison

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:579

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Tuberculosis continues to be a worldwide public health problem. Despite the noted gradual decline in tuberculosis case rates in the UK, clinicians should still be aware of these unusual presentations. Sternal ...

    Authors: John Rajan and Khaled Bizanti

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:580

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Rheumatoid arthritis is a common autoimmune disease with many extra-articular manifestations. Pure red cell aplasia is a rare manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis and is sparsely documented in the literature,...

    Authors: Suneth Weerasinghe, Parackrama Karunathilake, Udaya Ralapanawa, Thilak Jayalath, Shamali Abeygunawardena and Manel Rathnayaka

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:578

    Content type: Case report

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  25. Rhabdomyolysis is defined as a syndrome consisting of muscle necrosis and the release of intracellular muscle components into the bloodstream. Although rhabdomyolysis has been previously reported as an initial...

    Authors: Goar Egoryan, Sana Chaudry, Kritika Yadav, Tianyu Dong, Emre Ozcekirdek, Ece Ozen and Guillermo Rodriguez-Nava

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:576

    Content type: Case report

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  26. Rabies, caused by a lyssavirus, is a viral zoonosis that affects people in many parts of the world, especially those in low income countries. Contact with domestic animals, especially dogs, is the main source ...

    Authors: Y. A. Amoako, P. El-Duah, A. A. Sylverken, M. Owusu, R. Yeboah, R. Gorman, T. Adade, J. Bonney, W. Tasiame, K. Nyarko-Jectey, T. Binger, V. M. Corman, C. Drosten and R. O. Phillips

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:575

    Content type: Case report

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  27. Progressive supranuclear palsy is a neurodegenerative condition that worsens over time. Given the lack of targeted treatments, patients with severe progressive supranuclear palsy have very low life expectancy.

    Authors: Huiping Li, Fang Yuan, Yaming Du, Tao Pan, Wanxin Wen, Shaoxue Li, Lixin Wang and Aili Lu

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:574

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Uterine sarcoma accounts for 3–7% of uterine malignant neoplasms. It is more aggressive than epithelial neoplasms, and patients have a poor prognosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma is classified as a heterologous uterine s...

    Authors: Soheila Aminimoghaddam, Ali Rahbari and Roghayeh Pourali

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:570

    Content type: Case report

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  29. In recent years, numerous studies have reported the development or exacerbation of sarcoidosis due to interferon therapy. However, ocular lesions rarely present as initial symptoms. Herein, we describe a rare ...

    Authors: Ai Kato, Mami Ishihara and Nobuhisa Mizuki

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:568

    Content type: Case report

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  30. In neonates, rhesus D alloimmunization despite anti-D immunoglobulin prophylaxis is rare and often unexplained. Rhesus D alloimmunization can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn with anemia and unconjugat...

    Authors: Sandra Simony Tornoe Riis, Marianne Hoerby Joergensen, Kristina Fruerlund Rasmussen, Steffen Husby, Jane Preuss Hasselby, Lise Borgwardt, Klaus Brusgaard, Christina Ringmann Fagerberg and Henrik Thybo Christesen

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:573

    Content type: Case report

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  31. Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have been used for hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 patients because of their antiviral and anti-inflammatory function. However, little research has been published on th...

    Authors: Astrid Muyldermans, Piet Maes, Tony Wawina-Bokalanga, Tine Anthierens, Olivier Goldberg, Magali Bartiaux, Oriane Soetens, Ingrid Wybo, Sigi Van den Wijngaert and Denis Piérard

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:572

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Nephrotic-range proteinuria is a common reason for nephrological consultation in clinical practice. The differential diagnosis is wide, and generally focuses on different forms of glomerulonephritis, but other...

    Authors: Yana Apostolova, Patricia Mehier, Salah D. Qanadli and Menno Pruijm

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:569

    Content type: Case report

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  33. Escherichia coli has appeared as an important opportunistic pathogen responsible for nosocomial infections in patients with immunodeficiency, particularly in leukemia patients. New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase is...

    Authors: Mahdane Roshani, Alireza Goodarzi, Sanaz Dehbashi, Farhad Afrasiabi, Hossein Goudarzi, Ali Hashemi and Mohammad Reza Arabestani

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:567

    Content type: Case report

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  34. Patients diagnosed with locally advanced pancreatic cancer are usually not eligible for surgical resection because of significant vascular involvement. Stereotactic body radiation therapy and chemotherapy are ...

    Authors: Sriram Rao, Thanh-Lan Bui, Ali Sasani, Ben Sadeghi, Anvesh Macherla, Roozbeh Houshyar and Nadine Abi-Jaoudeh

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:566

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Excipients are widely used in pharmaceuticals, detergents, food, and drink because of their properties of low toxicity and hypoallergenicity. The excipient carboxymethylcellulose is used extensively as a thick...

    Authors: Katherine Townsend, James Laffan and Grant Hayman

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:565

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019, has become a global pandemic. Currently, there is no definitive treatment for coronavirus disease 2019. Convalescent plas...

    Authors: Theresia Monica Rahardjo, Elizabeth Yogipranata, Ardian Hediyanto Naswan, Fitri Rahayu Sari, Fajar Budiono, Hernawati Permatasari and C. H. R. Driantik Chuntari

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:564

    Content type: Case report

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  37. Coronavirus disease 2019, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has a broad clinical spectrum, from asymptomatic to multi-organ dysfunction. Acute cerebrovascular events associated wit...

    Authors: Khurram Khaliq Bhinder, Ahsun Rizwan Siddiqi, Muhammad Junaid Tahir, Hamza Maqsood, Irfan Ullah and Zohaib Yousaf

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:563

    Content type: Case report

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  38. The discovery of epidermal growth factor receptor oncogenic driver mutations has changed the therapeutic landscape of advanced non-small cell lung cancer in the past decade. Since the introduction of next-gene...

    Authors: Lander Van Acker, Dieter Stevens, Karim Vermaelen and Veerle Surmont

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:562

    Content type: Case report

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  39. Adult-onset leukoencephalopathies are a group of heterogeneous disorders characterized by white matter abnormalities. Leukoencephalopathy is usually encountered in children, but here we report a case with adul...

    Authors: Mohamed A. Taha and T. Scott Diesing

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:561

    Content type: Case report

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  40. Carney’s triad is a rare syndrome comprising gastrointestinal stromal tumor, extra-adrenal paraganglioma, and pulmonary chondroma along with newer additions of adrenal adenoma and esophageal leiomyoma. The tri...

    Authors: Ghazal Tansir, Nihar Ranjan Dash, Saurabh Galodha, Prasenjit Das, Shamim Ahmed Shamim and Sameer Rastogi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:559

    Content type: Case report

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  41. The new coronavirus, known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) owing to its similarity to the previous severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), is characterized by causing, in most...

    Authors: Natalia Ramirez, David Ujueta, Luis Felipe Diaz, Lucila Emilse Folleco, Andrea Rodríguez, Ivan Gaona and Mauricio O. Nava-Mesa

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:558

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Pneumatosis intestinalis is a rare disease characterized by gas-filled cysts within the submucosa or serosa of the intestinal tract. In recent years, pneumatosis intestinalis was reported in patients undergoin...

    Authors: Soji Toda, Hiroyuki Iwasaki, Daisuke Murayama, Maya Isoda, Hirotaka Nakayama, Nobuyasu Suganuma and Katsuhiko Masudo

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:556

    Content type: Case report

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  43. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reinfection prevalence is unknown. It is essential to understand reinfection symptoms and, importantly, the lived experience.

    Authors: Jacinda K. Dariotis, Stephanie M. Sloane and Rebecca Lee Smith

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:557

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  44. Pituitary metastases are rare, often deriving from lung or breast cancer owing to the upper vena cava proximity. Pituitary metastases can manifest with signs and symptoms of pituitary tumors, consequent to mas...

    Authors: Giuseppe Giuffrida, Francesco Ferraù, Ylenia Alessi and Salvatore Cannavò

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:555

    Content type: Case report

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  45. Sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality if not diagnosed and managed early.

    Authors: Jay Lodhia, Joachim Magoma, Joylene Tendai, David Msuya, Jamil Suleiman and Kondo Chilonga

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:554

    Content type: Case report

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