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  1. Double adenomas (DA) represents a distinct clinical entity of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). DA may follow various embryologic distribution patterns and could be supernumerary and/or ectopic.

    Authors: Georgios Tzikos, Michael Polyzonis, Konstantinos Milias, Stefanos Milias, Ioannis Passos, Konstantinos Ioannidis, Nektaria-Dimitra Doutsini, Georgios Chatzoulis and Panagiotis Spyridopoulos

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:198

    Content type: Case report

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  2. Hidradenoma papilliferum is a rare benign neoplasm arising from apocrine glands. It occurs commonly on the anogenital region of middle-aged women. It usually presents as a slow growing, solitary asymptomatic, ...

    Authors: Ozer Birge, Mehmet Sait Bakır, Ceyda Karadag, Zivar Eldarova and Tayup Simsek

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:162

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Thalassemia is an inherited autosomal recessive blood disorder causing abnormal formation of hemoglobin, known as a syndrome of anemia with microcytic erythrocytes. It is the most common genetic disorder world...

    Authors: Daniel Oren, Amiel A. Dror, Tania Bramnik, Eyal Sela, Igal Granot and Samer Srouji

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:197

    Content type: Case report

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  4. We report a unique case of synchronous sacrococcygeal chordoma in association with rectal invasive adenocarcinoma. Retrorectal tumors are a rare disease caused by a variety of pathologies. To our knowledge, no...

    Authors: Jaffar Alshahri, Mohammed Alshehri, Aminah Alnafesa, Mohammed Widinly, Tariq Alzaid, Saleh Alsulaimani and Alaa Abduljabbar

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:195

    Content type: Case report

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  5. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiologic entity characterized by headaches, altered mental status, seizures, visual loss, and a characteristic imaging pattern in brain magne...

    Authors: Goar Egoryan, Ricardo Murguia-Fuentes, Mohamed Agab, Nagwa Abou-Ghanem, Maria Adriana Yanez-Bello, Bimatshu Pyakuryal, Daniela Patricia Trelles-Garcia, Rami Ibrahim, Dorota Filipiuk, Adi Gidron and Guillermo Rodriguez-Nava

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:161

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant tumor involving mostly the head and neck region, and frequently the salivary glands. The development of lung metastasis after treatment of the primary tumor i...

    Authors: Daijiro Kobayashi, Takanori Abe, Jun-ichi Saitoh, Takahiro Oike, Hiro Sato, Atsushi Musha, Tatsuji Mizukami, Tsuneo Shimizu, Takashi Nakano and Tatsuya Ohno

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:156

    Content type: Case report

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  7. Malignant tumors, such as acute leukemia and solid cancers, frequently cause disseminated intravascular coagulation. However, cases of disseminated intravascular coagulation as a complication of bursitis were ...

    Authors: Taisuke Hamada, Tasuku Nishihara, Yosuke Mizuno, Teruki Kidani, Hiroki Tokiwa, Naoki Abe, Keisuke Sekiya, Sakiko Kitamura, Yasushi Takasaki, Hiromasa Miura and Toshihiro Yorozuya

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:155

    Content type: Case report

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  8. Esophageal involvement and Horner’s syndrome are rare manifestations of breast cancer distant metastases that can pose a significant challenge in diagnosis and treatment. In addition to the more aggressive beh...

    Authors: Sumadi Lukman Anwar, Widya Surya Avanti, Lina Choridah, Ery Kus Dwianingsih, Herjuna Hardiyanto and Teguh Aryandono

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:194

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Mayfield skull clamps are widely used and indispensable in current neurosurgery. Complications such as skull fractures or intracranial hematoma from using a Mayfield skull clamp have largely been reported in t...

    Authors: Takeo Furuya, Masashi Yamazaki, Tetsuharu Nemoto, Akihiko Okawa and Seiji Ohtori

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:154

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Blocking the programmed death 1 pathway by immune checkpoint inhibitors induces dramatic antitumor activity in patients with malignant tumors. However, the clinical response to immune checkpoint inhibitors rem...

    Authors: Rishu Takimoto, Takashi Kamigaki, Takuji Gotoda, Toshimi Takahashi, Sachiko Okada, Hiroshi Ibe, Eri Oguma and Shigenori Goto

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:191

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Although drug-induced interstitial pneumonia is a well-known adverse side-effect of cancer chemotherapy, the disease is difficult to detect in the early phase. We report a case of oxaliplatin-induced interstit...

    Authors: Yasuyuki Taooka, Hiroki Yoke and Junya Inata

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:153

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Appendicitis following trauma is a well-documented sequela of blunt trauma to the abdomen, while appendiceal transection following trauma is extremely rare. Literature reports have documented appendicitis and ...

    Authors: Kanika Sharma, Shreya Tomar, Shilpa Sharma and Minu Bajpai

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:192

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Raoultella Planticola is a facultative anaerobic, gram-negative, water- and soil-dwelling rod bacterium rarely reported as a cause of human disease. However, the number of reported R. planticola infections is gro...

    Authors: David Blihar, Phenyo Phuu, Svetlana Kotelnikova and Edward Johnson

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:152

    Content type: Case report

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  14. Pseudo-Wellens syndrome is a rare entity characterized by the presence of electrocardiogram (ECG) changes of Wellens syndrome but without the stenosis of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. In ...

    Authors: Teressa Reanne Ju, Ilhwan Yeo, Gregory Pontone and Reema Bhatt

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:151

    Content type: Case report

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  15. The incidence of ectopic kidneys is 1:12,000 clinically and 1:900 postmortem. Patients with pelvic mal-rotated kidneys are more susceptible to recurrent urinary tract infections, recurrent renal stones, and re...

    Authors: Hussam S. Khougali, Omer Ali Mohamed Ahmed Alawad, Nicholas Farkas, Mohammed Mahgoub Mirghani Ahmed and Alnasri Mohammed Abuagla

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:181

    Content type: Case report

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  16. Central hyperthyroidism is a rare form of hyperthyroidism caused by thyrotrope pituitary adenomas. It is characterized by elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone alongside high thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Goi...

    Authors: David George Jackson, John Parker and Thomas Cummings

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:173

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Umbilical hernias are a frequent and well-known pathology in children or adults. Congenital umbilical hernias are commonly diagnosed in childhood, and in adulthood such a hernia is usually acquired. Umbilical ...

    Authors: Friday Saidi, Bakari Rajab, Lameck Chinula, Nomsa Kafumba, Maganizo Chagomerana and Jennifer H. Tang

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:187

    Content type: Case report

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  18. Immune checkpoint inhibitors and mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors have become the standard of care in patients with advanced melanoma bearing V600 mutations. However, little is known about their nep...

    Authors: Periklis Kyriazis, Abhinav Tiwary, Jonathan Freeman, Daniel Landry and Gregory Braden

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:186

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Clear-cell carcinoma arising from the surgical cesarean section scar is very infrequent. The present study reports two patients with clear-cell carcinoma arising from an abdominal wall scar 20 and 23 years aft...

    Authors: Seyedeh Razieh Hashemi, Mahdi Morshedi, Houshyar Maghsoudi, Arezoo Esmaeilzadeh and Ibrahim Alkatout

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:146

    Content type: Case report

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  20. Mondor’s disease of the breast (MDB) is a rare and benign disorder of the breast. It is characterized by thrombophlebitis of the superficial veins of the chest wall. Clinically, it manifests as a cord-like ind...

    Authors: K. Ben Hamida, M. Ghalleb, A. Triki, I. Jebir, R. Makhlouf and H. Touinsi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:188

    Content type: Case report

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  21. Urinary retention is a condition in which impaired emptying of the bladder results in postvoid residual urine. It can be acute or chronic urinary retention. There have been only scattered case studies that hav...

    Authors: Ayotunde Olumide Ojo, Adesegun Lawrence Ajasa, Rilwan Babatunde Oladipupo and Nicholas Oluwaseyi Aderinto

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:183

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Rhopressa (netarsudil) has recently been added to the arsenal of treatment for open-angle glaucoma. It is an effective norepinephrine transporter and Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor used to decr...

    Authors: Matthew J. Chu, Michael Song, Trisa Palmares, Alice Song and Julia Song

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:182

    Content type: Case report

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  23. A central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is an ophthalmic emergency due to its strong association with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A timely diagnosis is necessary but difficult...

    Authors: Timothy M. Janetos, Olga German and Rukhsana Mirza

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:145

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Unilateral pulmonary artery discontinuity is a rare malformation that is associated with other intracardiac abnormalities. Cases accompanied by other cardiac abnormalities are often missed on prenatal echocard...

    Authors: Hyun-Hwa Cha, Hae Min Kim and Won Joon Seong

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:190

    Content type: Case report

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  25. Despite an otherwise robust national antenatal clinic program, maternal and congenital syphilis remains an important public health issue in Zambia. This case series reports the clinical presentation of seven i...

    Authors: Nsofwa Sukwa, Michelo Simuyandi, Masuzyo Chirwa, Yvonne Mutombo Kumwimba, Obvious N. Chilyabanyama, Natasha Laban, Aybüke Koyuncu and Roma Chilengi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:149

    Content type: Case report

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  26. Heart failure is usually associated with a low-cardiac-output state; however, a minority of these patients are characterized by a high-output cardiac state, described as a cardiac index of > 4 L/minute/m2. Usuall...

    Authors: Laura J. Albak, Ashish H. Shah and James W. Tam

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:177

    Content type: Case report

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  27. Diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis poses a dilemma to physicians due to nonspecific symptoms like abdominal pain, fever, nausea, and a change in bowel habit. In particular, the distinction between inflammato...

    Authors: Daniel Sasse, Christoph D. Spinner, Kathrin Rothe, Jochen Schneider, Jochen Gaa and Silvia Würstle

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:144

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is based on a combination of clinical symptomatology, compatible chest imaging findings, evidence of Aspergillus infection and exclusion of alternative diagnosis...

    Authors: Richard Kwizera, Andrew Katende, Felix Bongomin, Lydia Nakiyingi and Bruce J. Kirenga

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:140

    Content type: Case report

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  29. Pheochromocytomas are a subset of paragangliomas, which are a rare group of neural crest cell-derived tumors. Malignant cases of both pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are even rarer, and currently there is...

    Authors: Robin Raquel Rodriguez, Saleha Rizwan, Khaled Alhamad and Gene Grant Finley

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:172

    Content type: Case report

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  30. Perampanel (PER) is a novel antiepileptic drug (AED) which employs a completely different mechanism of action compared to existing medications. Overall, PER is considered to be safe up to a dose of 12 mg per d...

    Authors: Kanitpong Phabphal and Prut Koonalintip

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:147

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  31. Gram-negative bacteria are an uncommon etiology of spontaneous community-acquired adult meningitis and meningoencephalitis. Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative bacterium that is normally present in the intestinal...

    Authors: V. Pota, M. B. Passavanti, F. Coppolino, F. Di Zazzo, L. De Nardis, R. Esposito, M. Fiore, G. S. R. C. Mangoni di Santostefano, C. Aurilio, P. Sansone and M. C. Pace

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:138

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is characterized by severe headache with reversible segmental constriction of the cerebral arteries. We present details on a patient with reversible cerebral vasoc...

    Authors: Rijo Hayashi, Shimmin Hayashi and Shigeki Machida

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:175

    Content type: Case report

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  33.  Patients with lymphoproliferative disorders following hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) most commonly present with fever and lymphadenopathy within the first 5 months of transplant. Pulmonary post-tra...

    Authors: Ritika Dutta, Susanna Y. Miao, Paul Phan, Sebastian Fernandez-Pol, Parveen Shiraz, Dora Ho, Gabriel N. Mannis and Tian Y. Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:170

    Content type: Case report

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  34. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is a subtype of the disorders of sex development (DSD) associated with sex chromosome abnormalities characterized by abnormal external genitalia, short stature, and primary ameno...

    Authors: Yoshiko Kurose, Tomonori Nagai, Kousuke Shigematsu, Takahiro Uotani, Taichi Akahori, Yasushi Takai and Hiroyuki Seki

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:165

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Vulvar Paget’s disease (VPD) is a rare malignant disorder originating in the external genitalia. It occasionally invades into urethral or vaginal mucosa of female, making surgical treatment more complicating. ...

    Authors: Masaki Nakamura, Yuji Hakozaki, Shohei Iwata, Yusuke Sato, Katsuhiro Makino, Taketo Kawai, Yuta Yamada, Daisuke Yamada, Motofumi Suzuki, Jun Omatsu, Masanobu Abe, Kazuto Hoshi, Haruki Kume and Yasuhiko Igawa

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:136

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Traditional coronary artery disease risk factors are well established and help risk stratify most patients presenting with chest pain syndromes. Young patients (under age 30 years) without other risk factors a...

    Authors: Nafeesah Ali, Kandace Baggan, Shari S. Khan, Paramanand Maharaj and Ronan G. Ali

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:166

    Content type: Case report

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  37. The concept of using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) instead of human chorionic gonadotropin for triggering ovulation in patients treated with an antagonist protocol for in vitro fertilization (...

    Authors: A. Smirnova, M. Anshina, E. Shalom Paz and A. Ellenbogen

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:134

    Content type: Case report

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  38. The pandemic of this century has overwhelmed the healthcare systems of affected countries, and all resources have been diverted to coronavirus disease 2019. At the onset, coronavirus disease 2019 can present a...

    Authors: Abdullah Isneen Hilmy, Rajib Kumar Dey, Hisham Ahmed Imad, Abdul Azeez Yoosuf, Ali Nazeem and Ali Abdulla Latheef

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:171

    Content type: Case report

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  39. Patients with Marfan syndrome commonly require spinal deformity surgery. The purpose of this case report is to present a rare thoracotomy complication. We present the management of such a patient.

    Authors: Saeid Safaei, Ahmadreza Mirbolook, Parisa Azimi, Mirbahador Athari, Farhad Hamzehzadeh and Taravat Yazdanian

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:167

    Content type: Case report

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  40. Paraneoplastic neurological syndrome is an immune-mediated phenomenon where antibodies from tumor cells are produced against neuronal proteins. Amphiphysin antibody is an onconeural antibody linked to the diag...

    Authors: Vineet Kwatra, Michail Charakidis and Narayan V. Karanth

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:158

    Content type: Case report

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  41. Neurolymphomatosis is rare. Neoplastic lymphocytes are seen to invade nerves (cranial or peripheral), nerve roots or other related structures in patients with hematological malignancy. It is a separate entity ...

    Authors: S. Alazawi, H. Elomri, R. Taha, M. Bakr, M. T. Abdelhamid, L. Szabados, M. Yassin, H. El Sabah, K. Aboudi, A. Ellahie, A. Fadul, A. Gameil, A. Al Battah and L. J. Fernyhough

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:133

    Content type: Case report

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  42. The outcomes of Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) can improve with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) during the first complete remission after tr...

    Authors: Junichiro Yuda, Nobuhiko Yamauchi, Ayumi Kuzume, Yong-Mei Guo, Nobue Sato and Yosuke Minami

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:164

    Content type: Case report

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  43. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum is a rare disease. It could be a simple and self-limited condition or be a life-threatening complication of underlying diseases. The therapeutic options also differ by the cause. ...

    Authors: Berhanu N. Alemu, Ephraim T. Yeheyis and Abraham G. Tiruneh

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:157

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. Primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) is a rare medical condition usually associated with hyperkalemia or normokalemia. We report a rare case of Addison's disease, coexisting with hypokalemia, requ...

    Authors: M. Abdalla, J. A. Dave and I. L. Ross

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:131

    Content type: Case report

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  45. Limbic encephalitis (LE), a variant of autoimmune encephalitis, is inflammation of the limbic system of the brain. The disorder presents with subacute impairment of short-term memory, psychiatric manifestation...

    Authors: Ismail Ibrahim Ismail, Fahad Alnaser and Jasem Y. Al-Hashel

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:130

    Content type: Case report

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