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  1. Mycoplasmas are the smallest prokaryotic microorganisms in nature. Many cases of stroke post-Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection have been reported, particularly in the pediatric population. However, Mycoplasma homin...

    Authors: Anthoula C. Tsolaki, Galaktion Konstantinidis, Stavroula Koukou, Fotini Michali, Despina Georgiadou, Thomas Tegos and Nikolaos D. Michalis

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:318

    Content type: Case report

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  2. Uterus didelphys results from a failure in Mullerian duct fusion and may be associated with complete or partial vaginal septa. Most cases of uterus didelphys are discovered incidentally during the workup of in...

    Authors: Zakwan Khrait

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:317

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Left ventricular noncompaction is a rare cardiomyopathy characterized by a thin, compacted epicardial layer and a noncompacted endocardial layer, with trabeculations and recesses that communicate with the left...

    Authors: Despina Toader, Alina Paraschiv, Petrișor Tudorașcu, Diana Tudorașcu, Constantin Bataiosu and Adrian Balșeanu

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:316

    Content type: Case report

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  4. The principles for maintenance intravenous fluid prescription in children were developed in the 1950s. These guidelines based on the use of hypotonic solutions have been challenged regularly for they seem to b...

    Authors: M. Denis, A. Di Giacomo, E. Lacotte, F. Porcheret, N. Letouzé, B. Lauzier, I. Goyer and D. Brossier

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:315

    Content type: Case report

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  5. Sugammadex is a synthetic γ-cyclodextrin derivative designed to selectively bind to steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents and reverse their effects. Although many cases of sugammadex-induced anaphylaxis have...

    Authors: Tatsuo Horiuchi, Tomonori Takazawa, Shinya Sakamoto, Masaki Orihara, Akihiko Yokohama, Mutsumi Uchiyama and Shigeru Saito

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:313

    Content type: Case report

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  6. To the best of our knowledge, arthroscopic treatment for symptomatic mucoid degeneration of the posterior cruciate ligament in young athletes has not been reported before.

    Authors: Ryo Kanto, Hiroshi Nakayama, Tomoya Iseki, Shintaro Onishi, Ryo Iwakura, Shinichi Yoshiya and Toshiya Tachibana

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:284

    Content type: Case report

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  7. Polyps of the uterine cervix are one of the most common benign hyperplastic lesions occurring in the female genital tract that usually arise from the endocervical canal and are believed to be the result of rea...

    Authors: Esmatullah Esmat, Haider Ali Malakzai, Mujtaba Haidari, Ahmed Maseh Haidary, Merwaise Baha and Jamshid Abdul-Ghafar

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:279

    Content type: Case report

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  8. Metastatic spread to the pancreas is a rare event. Renal cell carcinoma represents one possible site of origin of pancreatic metastases. Renal cell carcinoma often metastasizes late and exclusively to the panc...

    Authors: Lena Haeberle, Melanie Busch, Julian Kirchner, Georg Fluegen, Gerald Antoch, Wolfram Trudo Knoefel and Irene Esposito

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:314

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Autoimmune disorders have become increasingly acknowledged as having a more causative role in encephalitis than previously assumed. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis seems to be the most prevalent ...

    Authors: Sara Wallengren, Björn Axel Johansson and Olof Rask

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:295

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Subhepatic appendix is most often due to an anomaly of rotation of the primary intestine occurring during embryogenesis. This ectopic topography associated with advanced age can be a serious diagnosis problem ...

    Authors: Abdoul Kadir Ibrahim Mamadou, Souleymane Mounkaila, Nouhou Hama Aghali, Mahaman Laouali Harouna Amadou and Ousseini Adakal

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:288

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Membranous nephropathy (MN) is the leading cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults worldwide. A growing body of evidence indicates a pathogenic and autoimmune correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection, MN, ...

    Authors: Zeid Nesheiwat, Judy Daboul, Ganesh Prasad Merugu, Sreedhar Adapa and Mamtha Balla

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:308

    Content type: Case report

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  12. We report our findings in a patient who developed central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and was a chronic user of olanzapine, an antipsychotic medication.

    Authors: Ali Nowrouzi, Sepideh Kafiabasabadi, Mario Rodriguez-Calzadilla, Javier Benitez-del-Castillo, Alejandro Soto-Guerrero, Antonio Diaz-Ramos and Kyara Vaneska Marques-Cavalcante

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:307

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Inflammatory cap polyp is a very rare benign entity of the distal left colon, characterized by inflammatory polyp with a “cap” of fibrinopurulent exudates. They are usually multiple and commonly present with b...

    Authors: Narendra Pandit, Tek Narayan Yadav, Mona Dahal, Laligen Awale and Shailesh Adhikary

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:306

    Content type: Case report

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  14. Krukenberg tumor is a rare metastatic tumor of the ovary with histopathological features known as signet ring cells. It usually develops in women around 45 years of age. However, here we describe an uncommon c...

    Authors: Felipe Mendoza-Rosado, Orlando Nunez-Isaac, Alan Espinosa-Marrón, Katheryn Lopez-Arjona and Fernando Davila-Martinez

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:304

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Laparoscopic pain is related to the stretching of the peritoneum and peritoneal irritation caused by insufflation of the parietal peritoneum with carbon dioxide. In 2017, erector spinae plane block (ESPB) was ...

    Authors: Antonio Coviello, Danilo Esposito, Roberta Galletta, Alfredo Maresca and Giuseppe Servillo

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:276

    Content type: Case report

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  16. Hydatid cysts are fluid-filled sacs containing immature forms of parastic tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The most prevalent and serious complication of hydatid disease is intrabiliary rupture, also known as...

    Authors: Manouchehr Aghajanzadeh, Mohammad Taghi Ashoobi, Hossein Hemmati, Pirooz Samidoust, Mohammad Sadegh Esmaeili Delshad and Yousha Pourahmadi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:311

    Content type: Case report

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  17. The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization on J...

    Authors: Somayeh Moeindarbary, Azam Pourhoseini, Parvaneh Layegh, Zahra Shahriari, Faezeh Fayyaz, Milad Bahrami and Mahdi Rafiee

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:310

    Content type: Case report

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  18. Proteus mirabilis is the second most common pathogen that causes urinary tract infections after Escherichia coli. In rare cases, it is associated with vertebral osteomyelitis. The underlying mechanism of this rel...

    Authors: Ming-Hsiu Chiang, Mei-Hui Lee, Yung-Ching Liu and Chi-Hung Lee

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:274

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Felty syndrome is a rare manifestation of chronic rheumatoid arthritis in which patients develop extraarticular features of hepatosplenomegaly and neutropenia. The typical presentation of Felty syndrome is in ...

    Authors: Anupam Gupta, Aryan Abrahimi and Aesha Patel

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:273

    Content type: Case report

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  20. Few studies have assessed hydrogel spacer shrinkage during external-beam radiation therapy following brachytherapy for localized high-risk prostate cancer. This case presentation evaluated the changes in hydro...

    Authors: Katsumaro Kubo, Masahiro Kenjo, Hideo Kawabata, Koichi Wadasaki, Mitsuru Kajiwara, Yoshiko Doi, Minoru Nakao, Hideharu Miura, Shuichi Ozawa and Yasushi Nagata

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:296

    Content type: Case report

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  21. The clinical characteristics and complications of Cushing syndrome (CS) are well known and described in the literature. Nevertheless, rare, atypical presentations may go unnoticed. Osteonecrosis is a well-docu...

    Authors: Daniela Salazar, César Esteves, Maria João Ferreira, Jorge Pedro, Tiago Pimenta, Raquel Portugal and David Carvalho

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:287

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease involving the deposition of pathologic amyloid-β and tau protein in the cerebral cortex. Alzheimer’s disease is commonly characterized by progressive impairme...

    Authors: Masahiko Takaya, Kazunari Ishii, Kazumasa Saigoh and Osamu Shirakawa

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:272

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Cardiac and neurological involvement in hemolytic uremic syndrome are life-threatening complications. The most frequent complications of cardiac involvement in hemolytic uremic syndrome are myocarditis and car...

    Authors: Sophie Mounier, Arthur Gavotto, Julie Tenenbaum, Pierre Meyer, Marc Fila and Julien Baleine

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:300

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare but well-known extra-nodal lymphoma, which usually presents with non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas. PCNSL is generally located around the ventricle and is o...

    Authors: Mehmet Sözen, Büşra Yaprak Bayrak, Alev Selek, Zeynep Cantürk, Berrin Çetinarslan and Emre Gezer

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:293

    Content type: Case report

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  25. Chronic myeloid leukemia is a hematologic malignancy associated with the fusion of two genes: BCR and ABL1. This fusion results from a translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, which is called the Philadelph...

    Authors: Yuka Torii, Kana Nanjo, Tomomi Toubai, Masashi Hosokawa, Ryo Sato, Akane Yamada, Keiko Aizawa, Masahito Himuro, Satoshi Ito, Masakazu Yamamoto, John Magenau, Ryan Wilcox and Kenichi Ishizawa

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:285

    Content type: Case report

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  26. Only a small portion of horse injuries are related to horse bites. In the majority of these occurrences, injuries are minor and self-treated. However, in some cases, the injury may be destructive and limb- and...

    Authors: Hajriz Rudari, Luan Jaha, Adhurim Koshi and Lulzim Vokrri

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:271

    Content type: Case report

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  27. Retroperitoneal hematoma after vaginal delivery is rare but can lead to maternal morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of this condition is challenging due to its complexity and its nonspecific signs and symptoms...

    Authors: Raha Maroyi, Nyakio Ngeleza, Kiminyi Kalunga, Cikwanine Buhendwa, Usama Shahid, Roland Boij and Denis Mukwege

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:290

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is often idiopathic, but structural chromosomal abnormality is an important nosogenesis. Balanced translocations or inversions can lead to unbalanced gametes depending on t...

    Authors: Xue Wan, Linyan Li, Zulin Liu, Zhenhai Fan and Limei Yu

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:270

    Content type: Case report

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  29. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm represents a rare type of hematologic malignancy that often manifests itself through various skin lesions. It commonly affects the elderly male population. Lymph no...

    Authors: Fateme Salemi, Seyed Mohammad Reza Mortazavizadeh, Seyyedmohammadsadeq Mirmoeeni, Amirhossein Azari Jafari, Farid Kosari and Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:292

    Content type: Case report

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  30. Choroid plexus carcinoma is an intraventricular neoplasm originating from the choroid plexus epithelium and is of rare occurrence in adults. However, owing to the low prevalence of choroid plexus carcinoma, th...

    Authors: In Young Jo, Seung-Gu Yeo, Hyuk-Jin Oh and Jae-Sang Oh

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:286

    Content type: Case report

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  31. Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that commonly affects the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. Cerebral schistosomiasis is rare, and few operative cases have been reported in the literature. Dia...

    Authors: Moayad Moawia ZainElabdin Ahmed, Haytham Hussein Mohammed Osman, Alaa Hatim Ameer Mohamed and Alaaeldin Ginawi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:268

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Acute encephalopathy, while a common presentation in the emergency department, is typically caused by a variety of metabolic, vascular, infectious, structural, or psychiatric etiologies. Among metabolic causes...

    Authors: T. M. Skipina, S. Macbeth, E. L. Cummer, O. L. Wells and S. Kalathoor

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:294

    Content type: Case report

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  33. Bronchobiliary fistula is an extremely rare disease that involves abnormal communication between a hepatic segment and bronchial tree. It is mostly caused by untreated hydatid cyst, liver abscess, iatrogenic s...

    Authors: Seyed-ahmad Seyed-alagheband, Mohammad-kazem Shahmoradi and Ramin Shekouhi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:291

    Content type: Case report

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  34. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma caused by succinate dehydrogenase gene mutations is called hereditary pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndrome. In particular, succinate dehydrogenase subunit B mutations are ...

    Authors: Rei Hirose, Yuya Tsurutani, Chiho Sugisawa, Kosuke Inoue, Sachiko Suematsu, Maki Nagata, Naoki Hasegawa, Yukio Kakuta, Masato Yonamine, Kazuhiro Takekoshi, Noriko Kimura, Jun Saito and Tetsuo Nishikawa

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:282

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Inverted Meckel’s diverticulum refers to the condition in which the diverticulum inverts on itself. The reasons for such an inversion are poorly understood due to the rarity of the condition. We present a case...

    Authors: Lovenish Bains, Rahul Bhatia, Rohit Kaushik, Pawan Lal, Gayatri Rajpaul and Veerpal

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:264

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Conjoined twins are a rare clinical event occurring in about 1 per 250,000 live births. Though the prognosis of conjoined twins is generally low, there is limited evidence as to the optimal method of pregnancy...

    Authors: Ferid A. Abubeker, Tesfaye H. Tufa, Matiyas Asrat Shiferaw, Mekdes Daba Feyssa, Wondimu Gudu, Delayehu Bekele and Sarah Prager

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:298

    Content type: Case report

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  37. High-dose vitamin C is increasingly used for sepsis and more recently for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections. Proponents argue that the low cost and near perfect safety profile of vitamin C support...

    Authors: Olivier Lachance, François Goyer, Neill K. J. Adhikari, Marie-Hélène Masse, Jean-François Bilodeau, François Lamontagne and Marc-André Leclair

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:297

    Content type: Case report

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  38. Takotsubo syndrome is a stress-induced disease that makes up 2–3% of acute coronary syndrome cases. However, its onset mechanism remains unclear. Although females are overwhelmingly affected, males end up havi...

    Authors: Tsutomu Murakami, Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Shingo Matsumoto, Hiroshi Kajiwara, Hiroyuki Kobayashi and Yuji Ikari

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:281

    Content type: Case report

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  39. The incidence of colorectal cancer in persons aged < 50 years has been increasing. The diagnosis of colorectal cancer is not difficult if the patient has typical symptoms; however, diagnosis may be difficult i...

    Authors: Ren Kawamura, Yudai Suzuki, Yukinori Harada and Taro Shimizu

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:256

    Content type: Case report

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