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  1. Locked twins is a rare and hazardous obstetric complication, which occurs in approximately 1:100 twin pregnancies. One of the known etiologic factors for locked twins is size of the twins. We report a case of ...

    Authors: Abraham Fessehaye, Ferid A. Abubeker and Mekdes Daba

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:115

    Content type: Case report

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  2. Thyroid papillary carcinoma is one of the most common endocrine tumors, and it accounts for 85% of thyroid tumors. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent Cushing's syndrome is a rare disease. In this c...

    Authors: Mashallah Tabatabaizadeh, Sara Hasibi Taheri, Mohammad Eydi and Mohammad Shayestehpour

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:113

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Hypermagnesemia can be a fatal condition and should be diagnosed early on. Most reports of hypermagnesemia have been of adults with impaired renal function. We describe the case of a pediatric patient without ...

    Authors: Kotaro Araki, Yuhei Kawashima, Miyuki Magota and Norio Shishida

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:129

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Bilateral congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is very rare. A few studies have reported the pathogenic role of 5p in CDH.

    Authors: Noriyuki Nakamura, Takafumi Ushida, Yoshinori Moriyama, Kenji Imai, Tomoko Nakano-Kobayashi, Satoko Osuka, Maki Goto, Hiroaki Kajiyama, Hideyuki Asada, Masahiro Hayakawa and Tomomi Kotani

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:114

    Content type: Case report

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  5. Isolated basilar artery dissection (IBAD) is a rare but important cause of ischemic stroke. Anti-thrombotic therapy is often used to treat IBAD-related ischemic stroke, but selected cases might need more aggre...

    Authors: Toshiaki Goda, Naoki Oyama, Takanori Iwamoto, Hiroki Takai, Shunji Matsubara, Masaaki Uno and Yoshiki Yagita

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:119

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Oxalate nephropathy is a rare disorder that can result in acute kidney injury (AKI) and progresses to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The causes can be either primary or secondary. Primary hyperoxaluria inclu...

    Authors: Tala Mahmoud, Elias C. Ghandour and Bernard G. Jaar

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:106

    Content type: Case report

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  7. T cell-mediated eosinophilia is associated with numerous conditions—including atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and asthma—collectively known as the “atopic march.” Benralizumab is a recombinant, humanized, a...

    Authors: David N. Pham

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:103

    Content type: Case report

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  8. Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL) is an aggressive form of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma which historically has a poor prognosis. When relapse occurs, particularly in the cereb...

    Authors: Amanda E. Lipsitt, Jaclyn Y. Hung and Anne-Marie Langevin

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:102

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Perforation of the cornea is a rare finding in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Addressing a perforated cornea associated with RA is challenging, since its pathogenesis is not fully elucidated. Topical...

    Authors: Simona Delia Nicoară and Ioana Damian

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:116

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Aplasia cutis congenita is regarded as congenital focal absence of skin in the newborn, and occurrence of more than three similar skin defects is rare. The etiology is thought to be multifactorial, and precise...

    Authors: V. Thadchanamoorthy, Kavinda Dayasiri, M. Thirukumar, N. Thamilvannan and S. H. Chandraratne

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:110

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Breast tuberculosis, also known as tuberculous mastitis, is an extremely rare form of tuberculosis. It accounts for <0.1% of all breast diseases and <2% of all cases of tuberculosis. It is often misdiagnosed a...

    Authors: Yuka Sagara, Shuji Hatakeyama, Ayako Kumabe, Masako Sakuragi and Masami Matsumura

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:101

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection can lead to a constellation of viral and immune symptoms called coronavirus disease 2019. Emerging literature increasingly supports the premise that se...

    Authors: Artem Minalyan, Franklin L. Thelmo, Vincent Chan, Stephanie Tzarnas and Faizan Ahmed

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:112

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Most sudden-onset hearing loss is due to otolaryngologic- and very rarely to cerebrovascular disease. We report a woman with sudden bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. This case suggests that even in the abs...

    Authors: Tomoya Kinouchi, Keisuke Ishitani, Shinichi Uyama, Tadashi Miyamoto, Naomi Fujimoto and Hiromi Ueta

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:111

    Content type: Case report

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  14. Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is a rare entity which refers to the presence of gas within the wall of the small bowel or colon which is a radiographic sign. The etiology and clinical presentation are variable....

    Authors: M. C. Martín-Soberón, S. Ruiz, G. De Velasco, R. Yarza, A. Carretero, D. Castellano and J. M. Sepúlveda-Sánchez

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:109

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Dermoid cysts are well-known lesions that manifest as subcutaneous tumors around the lateral sides of the eyebrows in young patients. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often performed ...

    Authors: Taro Mikami, Chie Maeda, Fumihiko Aoki, Toshinori Iwai, Yuichiro Yabuki, Tetsuhiko Okabe, Kenichi Ohashi and Jiro Maegawa

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:99

    Content type: Case report

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  16. Pregnancy seems to increase the risk of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) relapses and make the TTP more severe in any of the pregnancy trimesters, or even during the postpartum period.

    Authors: Soheila Aminimoghaddam, Narjes Afrooz, Setare Nasiri, Ozra Motaghi Nejad and Fatemeh Mahmoudzadeh

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:104

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is characterized by hyperinflammation and life-threatening cytopenias. Survival is poor, and management is pivotal on rapid identification of the disease. HLH is associ...

    Authors: Y. Sun, C. Blieden, B. Y. Merritt, R. Sosa and Gustavo Rivero

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:98

    Content type: Case report

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  18. Lichen planus is a rare autoimmune disease primarily affecting the skin and mucous membranes of the oral mucosa, vulva, and vagina. Diagnosis is difficult and often delayed as the clinicians do not associate t...

    Authors: Lajya Devi Goyal, Priyanka Garg and Manmeet Kaur

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:97

    Content type: Case report

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  19. We report a high-risk case of a coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19)-positive patient with comorbidities including diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), hypothyroidism and chronic kidney disease (CKD), trea...

    Authors: Alka Mishra, Sumitra A. Bentur, Sonika Thakral, Rahul Garg and Bhanu Duggal

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:95

    Content type: Case report

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  20. Arthritis is rarely reported as a paraneoplastic manifestation of occult malignancy. We report herein two cases of paraneoplastic arthritis due to occult malignancy.

    Authors: Benjamin Sachdev Manjit Singh, Sharifah Aishah Wan, Yaw Kiet Cheong, Seow Lin Chuah, Cheng Lay Teh and Ahmad Tirmizi Jobli

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:94

    Content type: Case report

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  21. Current management of choledocholithiasis entails the use of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and clearance of the common bile duct. A rare complication of this procedure is the impaction ...

    Authors: Ibrahim Abu Shakra, Maxim Bez, Amitai Bickel, Mahran Badran, Fahed Merei, Samer Ganam, Walid Kassis and Eli Kakiashvili

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:93

    Content type: Case report

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  22. The risk of stroke after carotid sinus massage is greater if there is preexisting carotid stenosis or carotid plaques. We present the case of a patient with underlying 40% carotid stenosis, who developed a wat...

    Authors: Edgar R. Lopez-Navarro, Götz Greif, Carl-Albrecht Haensch, Adrian Ringelstein and Robert Larbig

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:83

    Content type: Case report

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  23. The double-duct sign is defined as dilation of both the common bile duct and pancreatic duct, which usually indicates pancreatic malignancy. However, benign causes have also been reported to cause a double-duc...

    Authors: Naseem Al-Khoury, Okbah Mohamad, Abd Al-Jawad Mazloum and Maher Madi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:82

    Content type: Case report

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  24. An infected aortic aneurysm is a rare and life-threatening vascular condition with a high incidence of arterial rupture and recurrence even after treatment. One of the most common causes of an infected aortic ...

    Authors: Kiyoshi Takemoto, Michitaka Nakamura, Masaaki Sakuraya, Tomonori Yamamoto, Wataru Iwanaga, Kazuaki Atagi, Kazuo Yamanaka and Takeshi Matsuyama

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:81

    Content type: Case report

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  25. Breast tuberculosis is a rare disease, even in endemic areas. The diagnosis can be challenging, as it can mimic breast cancer. We aim to report our experience and discuss diagnoses and management modalities.

    Authors: M. Ghalleb, S. Seghaier, O. Adouni, H. Bouaziz, A. Bouida, J. Ben Hassouna, R. Chargui and K. Rahal

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:73

    Content type: Case report

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  26. Primary urethral carcinoma (PUC) is rare and accounts for < 1% of all genito-urinary cancers. There is a male predominance of 3:1 and a peak incidence in the 7th and 8th decades. The aetiology of this cancer i...

    Authors: Emily Walsh, Niall Kelly, Padraig Daly, Nigam Shah and Ivor Cullen

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:91

    Content type: Case report

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  27. Very little is known about the risk that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral infection poses to cancer patients, many of whom are immune compromised causing them to be more susce...

    Authors: D. Madduri, S. Parekh, T. B. Campbell, F. Neumann, F. Petrocca and S. Jagannath

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:90

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Tumor molecular screening allows categorization of molecular alterations to select the best therapeutic strategy. AT-rich interactive domain-containing 1A (ARID1A) gene mutations are present in gastric, endometri...

    Authors: Mercedes Durán, Iris Faull, Enrique Lastra, Jean-Francois Laes, Ana Belén Rodrigo and Ricardo Sánchez-Escribano

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:89

    Content type: Case report

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  29. Mood and anxiety disorders are common in women of childbearing age, especially during the peripartum period. As more women seek medical management for these conditions, there is an increasing need for studies ...

    Authors: Greg J. Marchand, Katerina Meassick, Hannah Wolf, Sophia K. Hopewell, Katelyn Sainz, Sienna M. Anderson, Kelly Ware, Janelle Vallejo, Alexa King, Stacy Ruther, Giovanna Brazil, Kaitlynne Cieminski and Nicolas Calteux

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:88

    Content type: Case report

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  30. Combination regimens that include immune checkpoint (ICI) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition have opened the door to new treatment opportunities for patients with metastatic renal cell ca...

    Authors: T. Anders Olsen, Dylan J. Martini, Sean T. Evans, Jamie M. Goldman and Mehmet Asim Bilen

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:72

    Content type: Case report

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  31. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the global pandemic that has spread throughout the world, is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Given the limited scientific evidence o...

    Authors: Maryam Rabiei, Tahereh Soori, Amene Abiri, Zohreh Farsi, Arshia Shizarpour and Reihaneh Pirjani

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:87

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Myelomeningocele, which causes a neurogenic bladder, is usually treated with anticholinergics in children with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO); however, anticholinergics cause side effects such as dry m...

    Authors: Taiki Kato, Kentaro Mizuno, Hidenori Nishio, Takahiro Yasui and Yutaro Hayashi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:86

    Content type: Case report

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  33. Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process. Healing of acute and chronic wounds can be impaired by patient factors (that is, comorbidities) and/or wound factors (that is, infection). Regenerative medicine ...

    Authors: Vincenzo Davide Palumbo, Stefano Rizzuto, Giuseppe Damiano, Salvatore Fazzotta, Andrea Gottardo, Giuseppina Mazzola and Attilio Ignazio Lo Monte

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:85

    Content type: Case report

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  34. Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder in females and is the result of complete or partial loss of an X chromosome during fertilization. The missing X chromosome is originally either from the mother's ovum or t...

    Authors: Seyedetahere Mousavi, Batool Amiri, Saidee Beigi and Mohammadreza Farzaneh

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:79

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Bronchial fistula is a severe complication of pneumonectomy with a high mortality rate. We previously reported a technique for bronchial closure to prevent bronchial fistula in a canine model. We described tha...

    Authors: Kimitaka Makidono, Yoshihiro Miyata, Takuhiro Ikeda, Yasuhiro Tsutani, Yuichiro Kai, Kei Kushitani, Yukio Takeshima and Morihito Okada

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:71

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Hereditary hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive disorder where the clinical phenotype of skin pigmentation and organ damage occurs only in homozygotes. Simple heterozygotes, that is, just C282Y, typically...

    Authors: Venkatachalam Shobi, Awe Adeseye, Ballard Billy and Kalliny Medhat

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:84

    Content type: Case report

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  37. Lichen simplex chronicus has been defined as a localized skin condition characterized by thickening, hyperpigmentation and accentuated skin markings from chronic itching and from repeated scratching. The affec...

    Authors: Ozzy M. Emmanuel, Ana V. Karovska and Okey Ikedilo

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:80

    Content type: Case report

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  38. Accurate diagnosis of metastatic tumors in the breast is crucial because the therapeutic approach is essentially different from primary tumors. A key morphological feature of metastatic tumors is their lack of...

    Authors: Yurina Maeshima, Tomo Osako, Hidetomo Morizono, Mayu Yunokawa, Yumi Miyagi, Mari Kikuchi, Takayuki Ueno, Shinji Ohno and Futoshi Akiyama

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:78

    Content type: Case report

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  39. Retiform Hemangioendothelioma (RH) is an extremely rare vascular tumor of intermediate biological behavior, which is prone to local recurrence but rarely shows metastasis to distant sites. It may harbor areas ...

    Authors: Qurratulain Chundriger, Muhammad Usman Tariq, Shabina Rahim, Jamshid Abdul-Ghafar and Nasir Ud Din

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:69

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Rapid intravenous administration of vancomycin may manifest with histaminergic responses with clinical features ranging from mild rashes, pruritus and even shock. This case reports of a child, who was accident...

    Authors: Sharad Khakurel and Sangam Rawal

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:77

    Content type: Case report

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  41. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) such as polycythemia Vera (PV) and Essential Thrombocythemia (ET) can be associated with a high risk of both venous and arterial thrombosis. However, the co-existence betwee...

    Authors: Rime Benmalek, Hanane Mechal, Hatim Zahidi, Karim Mounaouir, Salim Arous, Mohamed El Ghali Benouna, Abdenasser Drighil and Rachida Habbal

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:76

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type Ia is a glycogenesis disorder with long-term complications such as hepatomegaly and renal dysfunction and is caused by congenital loss of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) expr...

    Authors: Daisuke Katayama, Hiroo Baba, Takashige Kuwabara, Jun Kido, Hiroshi Mitsubuchi, Shirou Matsumoto and Kimitoshi Nakamura

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:75

    Content type: Case report

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  43. Bertolotti’s syndrome is widely known to cause low back pain in young patients and must be considered as a differential diagnosis. Its treatment such as conservative therapy or surgery remains controversial. S...

    Authors: Kensuke Shinonara, Michiya Kaneko, Ryo Ugawa, Shinya Arataki and Kazuhiro Takeuchi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:68

    Content type: Case report

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  44. Acquired hemophilia A is a rare coagulopathy caused by inhibitors of blood coagulation factor VIII. Patients with acquired hemophilia A have a higher mortality risk (5–10%) than those with congenital hemophili...

    Authors: Keigo Maeda, Shinsuke Yamamoto, Naoki Taniike and Toshihiko Takenobu

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:66

    Content type: Case report

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