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  1. Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that commonly affects the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. Cerebral schistosomiasis is rare, and few operative cases have been reported in the literature. Dia...

    Authors: Moayad Moawia ZainElabdin Ahmed, Haytham Hussein Mohammed Osman, Alaa Hatim Ameer Mohamed and Alaaeldin Ginawi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:268

    Content type: Case report

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  2. Acute encephalopathy, while a common presentation in the emergency department, is typically caused by a variety of metabolic, vascular, infectious, structural, or psychiatric etiologies. Among metabolic causes...

    Authors: T. M. Skipina, S. Macbeth, E. L. Cummer, O. L. Wells and S. Kalathoor

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:294

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Bronchobiliary fistula is an extremely rare disease that involves abnormal communication between a hepatic segment and bronchial tree. It is mostly caused by untreated hydatid cyst, liver abscess, iatrogenic s...

    Authors: Seyed-ahmad Seyed-alagheband, Mohammad-kazem Shahmoradi and Ramin Shekouhi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:291

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma caused by succinate dehydrogenase gene mutations is called hereditary pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndrome. In particular, succinate dehydrogenase subunit B mutations are ...

    Authors: Rei Hirose, Yuya Tsurutani, Chiho Sugisawa, Kosuke Inoue, Sachiko Suematsu, Maki Nagata, Naoki Hasegawa, Yukio Kakuta, Masato Yonamine, Kazuhiro Takekoshi, Noriko Kimura, Jun Saito and Tetsuo Nishikawa

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:282

    Content type: Case report

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  5. Inverted Meckel’s diverticulum refers to the condition in which the diverticulum inverts on itself. The reasons for such an inversion are poorly understood due to the rarity of the condition. We present a case...

    Authors: Lovenish Bains, Rahul Bhatia, Rohit Kaushik, Pawan Lal, Gayatri Rajpaul and Veerpal

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:264

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Conjoined twins are a rare clinical event occurring in about 1 per 250,000 live births. Though the prognosis of conjoined twins is generally low, there is limited evidence as to the optimal method of pregnancy...

    Authors: Ferid A. Abubeker, Tesfaye H. Tufa, Matiyas Asrat Shiferaw, Mekdes Daba Feyssa, Wondimu Gudu, Delayehu Bekele and Sarah Prager

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:298

    Content type: Case report

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  7. High-dose vitamin C is increasingly used for sepsis and more recently for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections. Proponents argue that the low cost and near perfect safety profile of vitamin C support...

    Authors: Olivier Lachance, François Goyer, Neill K. J. Adhikari, Marie-Hélène Masse, Jean-François Bilodeau, François Lamontagne and Marc-André Leclair

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:297

    Content type: Case report

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  8. Takotsubo syndrome is a stress-induced disease that makes up 2–3% of acute coronary syndrome cases. However, its onset mechanism remains unclear. Although females are overwhelmingly affected, males end up havi...

    Authors: Tsutomu Murakami, Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Shingo Matsumoto, Hiroshi Kajiwara, Hiroyuki Kobayashi and Yuji Ikari

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:281

    Content type: Case report

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  9. The incidence of colorectal cancer in persons aged < 50 years has been increasing. The diagnosis of colorectal cancer is not difficult if the patient has typical symptoms; however, diagnosis may be difficult i...

    Authors: Ren Kawamura, Yudai Suzuki, Yukinori Harada and Taro Shimizu

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:256

    Content type: Case report

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  10. The Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of connective tissue disorders characterized by fragile blood vessels and an increased tendency for bleeding and scarring. Here, we report the outcome of a pars pla...

    Authors: Xhevat Lumi, Gaber Bergant, Anila Lumi and Mina Mahnic

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:249

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Acute portal vein thrombosis is a rare medical event usually seen in liver disease, but it can also occur due to any inherited or acquired procoagulable state that triggers venous occlusion. Hormonal therapies...

    Authors: Monica Zanconato Campitruz, Luis T. Ortiz-Figueroa and Edgardo Santiago

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:280

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Prostate adenocarcinoma is the most frequent cancer type among men, followed by skin cancer. Patients with prostate cancer usually present lower urinary tract symptoms due to tumor involvement. Bone marrow inv...

    Authors: Marcos Antonio Custódio Neto da Silva, Vitor Pimentel Rodrigues Manhães, Luadir Gasparotto Júnior, Daniela Miti Lemos Tsukumo and Cristina Alba Lalli

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:247

    Content type: Case report

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  13. According to previous reports, surgery is not recommended until at least 4 weeks after the symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 resolve. However, strong evidence has not been established regarding the optimal ...

    Authors: Yuki Tateno, Kimito Harada, Fumiki Okamoto and Hideo Katsuragawa

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:275

    Content type: Case report

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  14. In cases of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), the systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve apparatus results in an obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), which is known as ...

    Authors: Vladimir Skrypnikov, Christoph Rosenthal, Steffen Weber-Carstens, Mario Menk and Martin Russ

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:269

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids is a clinically and radiographically distinct inflammatory syndrome affecting multiple structures of the brain, inc...

    Authors: Eric Zhuang, Lisa Shane, Nima Ramezan, Ameera F. Ismail and Nilesh L. Vora

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:246

    Content type: Case report

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  16. The implantation of cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) is an established therapy in the prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with systolic dysfunction after myocardial infarction. To avoid immediate ...

    Authors: Henrike Andresen, B. Sasko, D. Patschan, N. Pagonas and O. Ritter

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:243

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Streptococcus pseudoporcinus (S. pseudoporcinus) was first identified in 2006. It cross-reacts with Lancefield group B antigen agglutination reagents and has been misidentified as S. agalactiae. Sites of S. pseud...

    Authors: George D. Liatsos, Athanasia Tsiriga and Spyridon P. Dourakis

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:240

    Content type: Case report

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  18. Implant-supported prosthetic treatment options are reliable for elderly edentulous patients with systemic health problems. These patients often need cost- and time-efficient solutions to avoid complications. H...

    Authors: Pedro Molinero-Mourelle, Nadin Al-Haj Husain, Samir Abou-Ayash, Burak Yilmaz, Tateyuki Iizuka and Martin Schimmel

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:236

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Honey is a rare cause of food allergy, especially in children, but it can cause severe systemic allergic reactions. In the pediatric age group, only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Honey alle...

    Authors: Margherita Di Costanzo, Nicoletta De Paulis, Silvia Peveri, Marcello Montagni, Roberto Berni Canani and Giacomo Biasucci

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:235

    Content type: Case report

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  20. Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is one of the most important complications of diabetes that can lead to amputation. Treatment of DFUs is a major challenge and places a heavy economic and social burden on patients an...

    Authors: Navid Faraji, Rasoul Goli, Babak Choobianzali, Soheyla Bahrami, Ali Sadeghian, Nazila Sepehrnia and Mahmoodreza Ghalandari

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:234

    Content type: Case report

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  21. Frosted branch angiitis (FBA) is an uncommon ocular sign with multiple causes. With the recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many cases of ocular manifestation in association with this dise...

    Authors: Tsu Hong Lim, Yong Zheng Wai and Jia Cherng Chong

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:267

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Spinal hydatidosis, a zoonotic disease caused by infection with Echinococcus spp. larvae, is rare, but its treatment remains a significant medical challenge. Approximately 70% of patients with spinal hydatidosis ...

    Authors: Hosein Safari, Somayeh Mirzavand, Abdollah Rafiei and Molouk Beiromvand

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:266

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Primary lung cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers. The common metastatic sites are the liver, bones, brain, adrenal glands and central nervous system. However, gastrointestinal metastases, pa...

    Authors: Chang-Yong Wang, Gang Xu, Chuan Gao and Dong Wang

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:265

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Generally, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is suspected in young patients with pulmonary emphysema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients often suffer from diagnostic gaps and are misd...

    Authors: Anna Annunziata, Maurizia Lanza, Antonietta Coppola and Giuseppe Fiorentino

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:231

    Content type: Case report

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  25. Spasticity and neuropathic pain are common in patients after spinal cord injury and negatively affect patients’ quality of life. Gabapentin and baclofen are frequently used to treat these conditions. We presen...

    Authors: M. Masciullo, F. Pichiorri, G. Scivoletto, C. Foti and M. Molinari

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:242

    Content type: Case report

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  26. In patients with gastric cancer, 6–27% of patients are diagnosed with T4b disease that invades adjacent organs, and curative resection can improve the prognosis of these patients.

    Authors: Naohiko Nakamura, Shinichi Kinami, Jun Fujita, Daisuke Kaida, Yasuto Tomita, Takashi Miyata, Hideto Fujita, Nobuhiko Ueda and Hiroyuki Takamura

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:230

    Content type: Case report

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  27. Sheehan's syndrome is hypopituitarism due to pituitary gland necrosis resulting from hemorrhagic shock during pregnancy. It is a rare complication with varied manifestations and a considerable delay in diagnosis.

    Authors: Abere Genetu, Yibeltal Anemen, Sinshaw Abay, Simachew Anemen Bante and Kebadnew Mulatu Mihrete

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:229

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Hypotony maculopathy has been classically reported as a complication of glaucoma surgery or ocular trauma. There have been only a few reports of hypotony maculopathy following pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Here...

    Authors: Yun Jeong Lee and Se Joon Woo

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:255

    Content type: Case report

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  29. Primitive neuroendocrine prostate neoplasms are rarely reported. This entity comprises carcinoïd tumors and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors, mainly those of the small-cell type. Large-cell-type pri...

    Authors: Walid Sleiman, Omar Karray, Mikael Abi Abdallah, Sarah Bleichner-Perez, Jihen Kourda, Mihaela Cosma-Opris, Sabine Assouad, Jean-Charles Riffaud, Stéphane Bart and Patrick Coloby

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:254

    Content type: Case report

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  30. The plasma serine protease inhibitor alpha 2-antiplasmin (α2-AP, otherwise known as α2-plasmin inhibitor) is a rapid-acting plasmin inhibitor recently found in human plasma, which seems to have a significant role...

    Authors: Bashir Abdrhman Bashir Mohammed

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:238

    Content type: Case report

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  31. Syncopes and transient loss of consciousness affect a large number of patients. Determining the underlying mechanism of a syncope is key to effectively treating and preventing future events. However, given the...

    Authors: Michael Wester, Tanja Bergmann, Martina Müller-Schilling, Lars S. Maier and Samuel T. Sossalla

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:261

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Primary splenic lymphoma represents a rare entity that constitutes less than 1% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and less than 2% of all lymphomas. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common histologica...

    Authors: Sawsan Ismail, Filip Ali, Hussein Ajamieh, Samir Kanaan, Rana Issa, Ali Daoud and Zuheir Alshehabi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:227

    Content type: Case report

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  33. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma is a rare neoplastic growth in the uterine cavity, representing less than 1% of uterine tumors. Such tumors usually affect premenopausal and perimenopausal women, with a m...

    Authors: Omar F. Altal, Ahmed H. Al Sharie, Omar M. Halalsheh, Nour Tashtush, Sarat Shaban, Mahmoud Alfaqih and Abdelwahab Aleshawi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:262

    Content type: Case report

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  34. Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus is a rare and aggressive disease that tends to have a poor response to chemotherapies. Previous studies have indicated that currently available treatment for primary...

    Authors: Shingo Ito, Yuji Tachimori, Yuichi Terado, Ryota Sakon, Kazuhiro Narita and Manabu Goto

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:237

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Differentiation syndrome (DS) is a life-threatening complication that may be seen in patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia undergoing induction therapy with all-trans retinoic acid or arsenic trioxide. I...

    Authors: Sayan Sarkar, Priya Ghosh, Anisha Gehani, Niharendu Ghara and Parthasarathi Bhattacharyya

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:226

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Germline pathogenic variants in the cadherin-1 (CDH1) gene cause a predisposition to hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). We report an HDGC case in Vietnam and identify a novel mutation in the CDH1 gene.

    Authors: Dzung Ngoc Thi Dang, Huong Thanh Thi Nguyen, Hoa Dieu Ngo, Bac Manh Tran, Anh Duc Vu, Huy Quang Dang and Van Thanh Ta

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:263

    Content type: Case report

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  37. Although life-threatening hemorrhage is a usual manifestation of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), thrombotic events seem to be more common in APL compared to other subtypes of acute leukemia. The treatment ...

    Authors: Shirin Haghighat, Alireza Rezvani and Maral Mokhtari

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:260

    Content type: Case report

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  38. Reduction en mass (REM) is one of the rare complications of inguinal hernia reduction. Although REM can be detected on the basis of specific computed tomography (CT) scan findings, many radiologists are not fa...

    Authors: Khosrow Najjari, Hossein zabihi Mahmoudabadi, Seyed Zeynab Seyedjavadeyn and Reza Hajebi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:251

    Content type: Case report

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  39. Among cardiac causes for postpartum maternal collapse, severe mitral stenosis is not listed as a potential cause in current literature. We report a rare case of severe mitral stenosis that presented with sever...

    Authors: Abraham Fessehaye, Yared Teshome Tafere and Desalegn Degafu Abate

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:225

    Content type: Case report

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  40. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in Indonesia in March 2020, and the number of infections has grown exponentially. The situation is at its worst, overwhelming intensive care unit (ICU) ...

    Authors: Hori Hariyanto, Corry Quando Yahya and Ronald Christian Agustinus Aritonang

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:259

    Content type: Case report

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  41. Infectious mononucleosis (IM) and mononucleosis-like illnesses are common viral infectious diseases which are often accompanied by a high fever, pharyngitis and lymphadenopathy in adults, although such infecti...

    Authors: Katsumasa Koyama, Takatoshi Anno, Takashi Urano, Ryo Shigemoto, Shintaro Irie, Fumiko Kawasaki, Miwa Kawanaka, Hirofumi Kawamoto, Hideaki Kaneto and Koichi Tomoda

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:257

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Actinomycosis is a rare inflammatory bacterial disease caused by Actinomyces species which can infrequently affect the large intestine. Disseminated actinomycosis is reported as a rare complication associated wit...

    Authors: Gnanaselvam Pamathy, Umesh Jayarajah, Dayal Sathyajith Gamlaksha, Roshana Constantine and Anura S. K. Banagala

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:224

    Content type: Case report

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  43. Effort rupture of the esophagus or Boerhaave’s syndrome is a rare entity, and prognosis is largely dependent on early diagnosis and treatment. Recurrent effort ruptures are very rare, only reported in a few ca...

    Authors: Adam Zeyara, Martin Jeremiasen, Oscar Åkesson, Dan Falkenback, Michael Hermansson and Jan Johansson

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:223

    Content type: Case report

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