Skip to main content

Advertisement

  • Case report
  • Open Access
  • Open Peer Review

Successful treatment of primary bone marrow Hodgkin lymphoma with brentuximab vedotin: a case report and review of the literature

Journal of Medical Case Reports201812:151

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13256-018-1693-0

  • Received: 8 January 2018
  • Accepted: 17 April 2018
  • Published:
Open Peer Review reports

Abstract

Background

Hodgkin lymphoma usually presents with sequential enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes, and bone marrow invasion rarely occurs (approximately 3–5%). However, several cases have been reported as “primary” bone marrow Hodgkin lymphoma, especially among patients with human immunodeficiency virus and the elderly. This type of Hodgkin lymphoma is characterized by no peripheral lymphadenopathies and has been reported to have poorer prognosis.

Case presentation

A 38-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital because of fever of unknown origin and pancytopenia without lymphadenopathies. Bone marrow examination revealed Hodgkin cells mimicking abnormal cells. These were positive for CD30, EBER-1, CD15, PAX-5, and Bob-1 and negative for Oct-2, CD3, CD20, surface immunoglobulin, CD56. On the basis of systemic evaluation and bone marrow examination, he was diagnosed with primary bone marrow Hodgkin lymphoma. We initiated therapy with DeVIC (dexamethasone, etoposide, ifosfamide, and carboplatin) therapy, but remission was not achieved. Then, the patient was treated with brentuximab vedotin combined with systemic chemotherapy (Adriamycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine), which was effective.

Conclusions

There is no established treatment strategy for Hodgkin lymphoma, and therapeutic outcomes using ABVD (Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine)-like or CHOP (cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone)-like regimens are reportedly poor. Only a few patients have been reported to achieve long-term remission. Through this case report, we suggest an alternative therapeutic option for primary bone marrow Hodgkin lymphoma.

Keywords

  • Epstein-Barr virus
  • Primary bone marrow Hodgkin lymphoma

Background

Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), one of the most common lymphoproliferative diseases, characteristically presents with progressive and sequential enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes [1]. Bone marrow (BM) invasion rarely occurs in patients with HL (approximately 3–5%) and typically only in those with advanced disease [2]. However, Shah et al. [3] reported a rare case of a patient with “primary bone marrow” Hodgkin lymphoma (PBMHL) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). PBMHL has also been reported in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is believed to play a causative role in HIV-associated HL [4]. Use of in situ hybridization or immunohistochemical staining has revealed that approximately 40% of patients with non-HIV-associated HL [5] and 75–78% of patients with HIV-associated HL are EBV-positive [4, 6]. The precise mechanism by which EBV contributes to development of HL remains unclear. EBV infection has no influence on the prognosis of children with HL [7]. However, some researchers have reported a higher relapse rate after primary treatment in middle-aged patients with EBV-associated HL than in those with non-EBV-associated HL [8]. In patients with refractory HL, dose-dense systemic chemotherapy, brentuximab vedotin (BV), and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant are considered salvage treatments. BV, which is a CD30-directed antibody conjugated with monomethyl auristatin E, is an approved treatment for patients with relapsed or refractory HL [9], and it has safely been combined with systemic chemotherapy [10]. In this report, we present a case of a patient with EBV-associated PBMHL who was successfully treated with BV-containing combination chemotherapy.

Case presentation

A 38-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital because of progressive fever and thrombocytopenia for more than 1 month. His medical history included Burkitt lymphoma (negative for EBV-encoded small ribonucleic acid (RNA)), and he had been treated with hyper-CVAD (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone) 12 years before admission. He had achieved complete remission. He was a daily smoker (18 pack-years) and took no daily medications. He had a family history of hypertension and denied having any malignancies.

The patient’s physical examination findings were normal except for small papules on his upper back. Laboratory tests showed pancytopenia, high C-reactive protein, and a negative result for HIV (Table 1). Computed tomography (CT) revealed moderate pulmonary emphysema with no evidence of infection or inflammation. Positron emission tomography/CT was unavailable for financial reasons. A skin biopsy of his rash revealed no malignant change. BM examination revealed hemophagocytosis without abnormal cells. Plasma viral deoxynucleic acid (DNA) was investigated to identify possible causes of hemophagocytosis, and the patient was found to be EBV DNA-positive (170,000 copies/ml).
Table 1

Laboratory findings on admission

Complete blood count

Coagulation

Biochemistry

WBC

3300/μl

APTT

32.2 s

TP

6.2 g/dl

IgG

1145 mg/dl

Neu

77.00%

PT

60%

Alb

3.8 g/dl

IgA

194 mg/dl

Lym

12.00%

FDP

8.4 μg/μl

AST

18 IU/L

IgM

28 mg/dl

Mo

5.00%

Fibrinogen

442 mg/dl

ALT

17 IU/L

sIL-2 receptor

7020 U/ml

Eos

0.00%

  

LDH

273 IU/L

β2-MG

1.4 μg/dl

Bas

0.00%

  

γ-GTP

28 IU/L

IL-6

20.6 pg/ml

Aty lym

5.00%

  

T-Bil

1.3 mg/dl

IFN-γ

6.3 IU/ml

RBC

331 × 104/μl

  

BUN

13.7 mg/dl

TNF-α

Negative

Hb

10.6 g/dl

  

Cre

0.68 mg/dl

Procalcitonin

0.06 ng/ml

Hct

31.00%

  

Na+

135 mEq/L

HIV antibody

Negative

MCV

93.7 fl

  

K+

4.4 mEq/L

Parvovirus IgM

Negative

Plt

10.6 × 104/μl

  

Cl

102 mEq/L

Parvovirus IgG

Positive

CD4+ T cells

220/μl

  

CRP

5.87 mg/dl

HHV-6 IgM

Negative

    

Fe

46 mg/dl

HHV-6 IgG

Positive

    

Ferritin

771 ng/ml

C7-HRP

Negative

      

EB EA IgG

Negative

(EIA index = 0.4)

      

EB VCA IgM

Negative

(EIA index = 0.5)

      

EB VCA IgG

Positive

(EIA index = 12.1)

      

EBNA IgG

Positive

(EIA index = 2.5)

      

EBV DNA

4200 copies/ml

Abbreviations: WBC White blood cells, APTT Activated partial thromboplastin time, TP Total protein, IgG Immunoglobulin G, Neu Neutrophils, PT Prothrombin time, Alb Albumin, IgA Immunoglobulin A, Lym Lymphocytes, FDP Fibrinogen degradation product, AST Aspartate aminotransferase, IgM Immunoglobulin M, Mo Monocytes, ALT Alanine aminotransferase, sIL-2 Soluble interleukin 2, Eos Eosinophils, LDH Lactate dehydrogenase, β 2 -MG β2-microglobulin, Bas Basophils, γ-GTP γ-Glutamyltransferase, IL-6 Interleukin 6, Aty lym Atypical lymphocytes, T-Bil Total bilirubin, IFN-γ Interferon-γ, RBC Red blood cells, BUN Blood urea nitrogen, TNF-α Tumor necrosis factor-α, Hb Hemoglobin, Cre Creatinine, Hct Hematocrit, HIV Human immunodeficiency virus, MCV Mean corpuscular volume, Plt Platelets, CRP C-reactive protein, HHV-6 Human herpesvirus 6, C7-HRP Cytomegalovirus antigenemia, EB EA IgG Epstein-Barr virus early antigen immunoglobulin G, EB VCA Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen immunoglobulin M, EIA Enzyme immunoassay, EBNA Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen

As recommended by a previous report, the patient’s EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) was treated with chemotherapy comprising etoposide and dexamethasone [11]. Shortly after initiation of chemotherapy, his white blood cell count recovered to within the normal range, and his plasma EBV DNA became undetectable. However, his EBV DNA turned positive (290 copies/ml), and his white blood cell count declined again 7–9 weeks later. A second BM sample showed infiltration with Reed-Sternberg (RS)-like cells (Fig. 1a, b) that were positive for CD30 (Fig. 1c), EBER-1 (Epstein-Barr encoding region 1) (Fig. 1d), CD15 (Fig. 1e), Bob-1 (Fig. 1d), and PAX-5 (Fig. 1e) but negative for Oct-2, CD3, CD20, surface immunoglobulin, and CD56. Another CT examination showed neither lymphadenopathy nor hepatosplenomegaly. The patient was eventually diagnosed with PBMHL (Ann Arbor stage IVB, International Prognostic Index high-intermediate risk). Previous reports have indicated that PBMHL progresses rapidly and that combination chemotherapy (Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine [ABVD]-like or cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, vincristine and prednisone [CHOP]-like regimens) is ineffective, as shown in Table 2. Because some patients with EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease express P-glycoprotein, which is a multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene product [12], the poor prognosis of PBMHL may be related to the presence of the MDR1 gene. DeVIC (dexamethasone, etoposide, ifosfamide, and carboplatin) includes ifosfamide and carboplatin, which are MDR-unrelated anticancer agents.
Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Histopathological findings in bone marrow on presentation. Representative photomicrographs of hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunohistochemically stained sections of bone marrow. Rectangular area in (a) (HE, × 40) is shown at higher magnification in (b) (HE, original magnification × 400). Reed-Sternberg cell-like cells are present (arrowhead). These cells are positive for CD30 (c, original magnification × 400), Epstein-Barr encoding region in situ hybridization (EBER-ISH) (d, original magnification × 400), CD15 (e, original magnification × 400), Bob-1 (f, original magnification × 400), and PAX-5 (g, original magnification × 400). The small rectangulars in dg show expression of CD30 in the same field. Arrowheads in f and g identify the CD30 positive malignant cells

Table 2

Compilation of published reports of patients with primary bone marrow Hodgkin lymphoma

Patient background

Age (years)

Sex

CD4 count

CD15

CD30

EB virus

Therapies

Survival (months)

Reference

Non-HIV

20

F

No data

ND

ND

ND

MOPP

9

[15]

Non-HIV

72

F

No data

+

+

EBER1+

THP-COP

1

[16]

Non-HIV

64

M

No dataa

+

+

ND

ABVD

1

[17]

Non-HIV

50

M

No datab

+

+

LMP1+

ABVD

1

[18]

Non-HIV

66

F

No dataa

+

+

EBER1+

A(B)VD

15

[19]

Non-HIV

68

M

No dataa

ND

+

EBER1+

ND

1

[20]

Non-HIV

89

F

No datab

+

Negative

ND

ND

[21]

AIDS

58

M

20

+

+

ND

ABVD

2

[22]

AIDS

36

M

31

+

+

ND

ABVD

4

AIDS

31

M

549

+

+

ND

ABVD

18

AIDS

49

M

54

+

+

ND

ABVD

114

AIDS

33

M

104

+

+

ND

EBVa

4

AIDS

34

M

86

+

+

ND

ABVD

3

AIDS

29

M

193

ND

ND

ND

MOPP

31

[23]

AIDS

55

M

14

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

[24]

AIDS

43

M

179

+

+

ND

ABVD

ND

[3]

AIDS

26

M

No data

+

+

ND

ND

ND

[25]

AIDS

29

F

No data

+

ND

ND

ND

AIDS

27

M

195

+

+

ND

ND

ND

AIDS

34

M

17

+

+

Negative

ND

ND

AIDS

26

M

39

+

+

ND

ND

ND

AIDS

31

M

123

+

+

ND

ND

ND

AIDS

49

M

52

+

+

ND

ND

ND

AIDS

40

M

56

+

+

ND

ND

ND

AIDS

35

M

104

+

+

LMP1+

ND

ND

AIDS

41

M

237

+

+

ND

ND

ND

AIDS

51

M

282

+

+

LMP1+

ND

ND

AIDS

42

M

198

+

+

ND

ND

ND

Abbreviations: AIDS Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, HIV Human immunodeficiency virus, MOPP Mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone, THP-COP Pirarubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone, ABVD Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine, ND No data, EBER1 Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA 1, LMP1 Latent membrane protein 1, EB Epstein-Barr virus

aLeukocytopenia (under 3500/μl) but no CD4 count available

bLymphocytopenia (under 1000/μl) but no CD4 count available

In addition, because of coexisting pulmonary emphysema, DeVIC therapy was initiated at 12 weeks from onset. Although DeVIC therapy induced transient recovery of pancytopenia, it recurred with high plasma EBV DNA titers (2300 copies/ml) after the second course of DeVIC therapy (19–20 weeks from onset). Because a third BM examination revealed residual RS cells, the patient’s disease was considered refractory to DeVIC therapy. After giving informed consent, he was further treated with BV (1.2 mg/kg) and AVD (Adriamycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) as described in a previous report [12]. His peripheral blood cell count recovered without support of medication, and the RS cells disappeared. After four courses of combined chemotherapy, BV monotherapy was continued for 8 months, during which both soluble interleukin (IL)-2 receptor and plasma EBV DNA titers remained within the normal range. The patient declined autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant. To date, no evidence of relapse has been detected.

Discussion

The overall incidence of BM involvement in HL is reportedly 5% [2]. However, approximately 40–50% of patients with HIV-associated HL have BM invasion, and these patients commonly present with an advanced stage of disease (mainly stage IV). PBMHL is characterized by solitary BM invasion with HL. PBMHL has been reported in patients with and without HIV infection (Table 2). Our review of published reports revealed that patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or older patients are more likely to develop PBMHL. Although our patient was HIV-negative, his number of CD4+ T cells was low (200/μl). As shown in Table 2, low CD4+ T-cell counts (or lymphocytopenia) are common in patients with PBMHL, especially in those with HIV-associated PBMHL, in whom CD4+ T-cell counts are reportedly 133 ± 130/μl (range 14–549/μl, median 103/μl).

Our patient developed HLH as the first symptom of HL. Although HL-associated HLH is rare, a previous retrospective study showed that EBV was frequently detected in patients with HL-associated HLH [13]. Patients with HIV-associated HL, in whom HLH is more common, also exhibit a high prevalence of EBV. These findings suggest that patients with HL-associated HLH might have an unclear underlying immune disturbance for EBV. Our patient’s case indicates that clinicians should perform BM biopsies to check for PBMHL in patients with (1) pancytopenia, (2) low CD4+ T-cell counts (or lymphocytopenia), and (3) EBV DNA positivity.

As for the prognosis of PBMHL, only a few patients achieve long-term remission (Table 2). When our patient’s PBMHL proved refractory, we selected BV with AVD as salvage therapy for the following reasons. First, because of its rarity, there is no established treatment strategy for this disease, and therapeutic outcomes using ABVD- or CHOP-like regimens are reportedly poor (as shown in Table 2). Second, bleomycin was contraindicated for our patient because of his coexisting moderate emphysema. Third, a combination of BV with AVD was significantly superior to BV with ABVD [10]. Fortunately, our patient completed his planned therapy without relapse. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of successful treatment of HIV-negative PBMHL with BV.

The association of EBV and HL has been investigated; however, the exact mechanism involved remains unclear. Approximately 40% of patients with non-HIV-associated HL are EBV-positive [5]; the rate of EBV positivity is much higher in patients with HIV-associated HL [4, 6]. In addition to in situ hybridization and histopathological staining, plasma EBV DNA titers are also a useful biomarker for monitoring prognosis in patients with EBV-associated HL [14]. In our patient, an increase in EBV DNA titer preceded recurrence of pancytopenia and occurred earlier than the increase in soluble IL-2 receptor titer. Plasma EBV DNA titers may be helpful for early detection of recurrence of PBMHL.

Conclusions

We present a rare case of a patient with PBMHL without HIV infection. More experience is needed to establish the optimum treatment for this disease. On the basis of our patient’s progress, we propose that combined therapy with BV and AVD could be a therapeutic option for PBMHL.

Abbreviations

ABVD: 

Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine

AIDS: 

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Alb: 

Albumin

ALT: 

Alanine aminotransferase

APTT: 

Activated partial thromboplastin time

AST: 

Aspartate aminotransferase

Aty lym: 

Atypical lymphocytes

AVD: 

Adriamycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine

Bas: 

Basophils

BM: 

Bone marrow

BUN: 

Blood urea nitrogen

BV: 

Brentuximab vedotin

C7-HRP: 

Cytomegalovirus antigenemia

CHOP: 

Cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone

Cre: 

Creatinine

CRP: 

C-reactive protein

CT: 

Computed tomography

DeVIC: 

Dexamethasone, etoposide, ifosfamide, and carboplatin

EB: 

Epstein-Barr virus

EB EA IgG: 

Epstein-Barr virus early antigen immunoglobulin G

EB VCA: 

Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen immunoglobulin M

EBER: 

Epstein-Barr-encoding region

EBER1: 

Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA 1

EBNA: 

Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen

EBV: 

Epstein-Barr virus

EIA: 

Enzyme immunoassay

Eos: 

Eosinophils

FDP: 

Fibrinogen degradation product

γ-GTP: 

γ-Glutamyltransferase

Hb: 

Hemoglobin

Hct: 

Hematocrit

HHV-6: 

Human herpesvirus 6

HIV: 

Human immunodeficiency virus

HL: 

Hodgkin lymphoma

HLH: 

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

IFN-γ: 

Interferon-γ

IgA: 

Immunoglobulin A

IgG: 

Immunoglobulin G

IgM: 

Immunoglobulin M

IL-6: 

Interleukin 6

LDH: 

Lactate dehydrogenase

LMP1: 

Latent membrane protein 1

Lym: 

Lymphocytes

MCV: 

Mean corpuscular volume

MDR1: 

Multidrug resistance 1

β2-MG: 

β2-microglobulin

Mo: 

Monocytes

MOPP: 

Mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone

ND: 

No data

Neu: 

Neutrophils

PBMHL: 

Primary bone marrow Hodgkin lymphoma

Plt: 

Platelets

PT: 

Prothrombin time

RBC: 

Red blood cells

RS: 

Reed-Sternberg

sIL-2: 

Soluble interleukin 2

T-Bil: 

Total bilirubin

THP-COP: 

Pirarubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone

TNF-α: 

Tumor necrosis factor-α

TP: 

Thymidine phosphorylase

WBC: 

White blood cells

Declarations

Acknowledgements

We thank Dr. Trish Reynolds, MBBS, FRACP, of Edanz Group (www.edanzediting.com/ac) for editing a draft of the manuscript.

Authors’ contributions

KN, YK, TY, RI, and KK were responsible for the clinical management of the patient. MI evaluated the pathological examinations. MM and NK supervised the writing of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

This case report was approved by the Suzuka General Hospital Ethics Committee on 30 Nov 2017 (approval number 176).

Consent for publication

Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Hematology and Oncology, Suzuka General Hospital, Mie, Japan
(2)
Department of Hematology and Oncology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Edobashi 2-174, Tsu Mie, 514-8507, Japan
(3)
Department of Pathology, Japanese Red Cross Nagoya First Hospital, Aichi, Japan

References

  1. Gobbi PG, Ferreri AJM, Ponzoni M, Levis A. Hodgkin lymphoma. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2013;85(2):216–37.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Franco V, Tripodo C, Rizzo A, Stella M, Florena AM. Bone marrow biopsy in Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Eur J Haematol. 2004;73(3):149–55.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Shah BK, Subramaniam S, Peace D, Garcia C. HIV-associated primary bone marrow Hodgkin’s lymphoma: a distinct entity? J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(27):e459–60.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Yotsumoto M, Hagiwara S, Ajisawa A, Tanuma J, Uehira T, Nagai H, et al. Clinical characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus-associated Hodgkin lymphoma patients in Japan. Int J Hematol. 2012;96(2):247–53.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chang KL, Kamel OW, Arber DA, Horyd ID, Weiss LM. Pathologic features of nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin’s disease in extranodal sites. Am J Surg Pathol. 1995;19(11):1313–24.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Westmoreland KD, Stanley CC, Montgomery ND, Kaimila B, Kasonkanji E, El-Mallawany NK, et al. Hodgkin lymphoma, HIV, and Epstein-Barr virus in Malawi: longitudinal results from the Kamuzu Central Hospital Lymphoma study. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017;64(5):e26302.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  7. Claviez A, Tiemann M, Luders H, Krams M, Parwaresch R, Schellong G, et al. Impact of latent Epstein-Barr virus infection on outcome in children and adolescents with Hodgkin’s lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(18):4048–56.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Diepstra A, van Imhoff GW, Schaapveld M, Karim-Kos H, van den Berg A, Vellenga E, et al. Latent Epstein-Barr virus infection of tumor cells in classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma predicts adverse outcome in older adult patients. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(23):3815–21.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Zinzani PL, Viviani S, Anastasia A, Vitolo U, Luminari S, Zaja F, et al. Brentuximab vedotin in relapsed/refractory Hodgkin’s lymphoma: the Italian experience and results of its use in daily clinical practice outside clinical trials. Haematologica. 2013;98(8):1232.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Connors JM, Jurczak W, Straus DJ, Ansell SM, Kim WS, Gallamini A, et al. Brentuximab vedotin with chemotherapy for stage III or IV Hodgkin’s lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 2017;378(4):331–44.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Henter J-I, Samuelsson-Horne A, Aricò M, Egeler RM, Elinder G, Filipovich AH, et al. Treatment of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with HLH-94 immunochemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. Blood. 2002;100(7):2367.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Younes A, Connors JM, Park SI, Fanale M, O’Meara MM, Hunder NN, et al. Brentuximab vedotin combined with ABVD or AVD for patients with newly diagnosed Hodgkin’s lymphoma: a phase 1, open-label, dose-escalation study. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(13):1348–56.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Mánard F, Besson C, Rincá P, Lambotte O, Lazure T, Canioni D, et al. Hodgkin lymphoma–associated hemophagocytic syndrome: a disorder strongly correlated with Epstein-Barr virus. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47(4):531–4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  14. Gandhi MK, Lambley E, Burrows J, Dua U, Elliott S, Shaw PJ, et al. Plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA is a biomarker for EBV-positive Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12(2):460–4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Meadows LM, Rosse WR, Moore JO, Crawford J, Laszlo J, Kaufman RE. Hodgkin’s disease presenting as myelofibrosis. Cancer. 1989;64(8):1720–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kojima H, Takei N, Mukai Y, Hasegawa Y, Suzukawa K, Nagata M, et al. Hemophagocytic syndrome as the primary clinical symptom of Hodgkin’s disease. Ann Hematol. 2003;82(1):53–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ponzoni M, Ciceri F, Crocchiolo R, Famoso G, Doglioni C. Isolated bone marrow occurrence of classic Hodgkin’s lymphoma in an HIV-negative patient. Haematologica. 2006;91(3):Ecr04.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cacoub L, Touati S, Yver M, Frayfer J, Abarah W, Andre-Kerneis E, et al. Isolated bone marrow Hodgkin lymphoma in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient: a second case. Leuk Lymphoma. 2014;55(7):1675–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Dholaria B, Alapat D, Arnaoutakis K. Primary bone marrow Hodgkin lymphoma in an HIV-negative patient. Int J Hematol. 2014;99(4):503–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Morita Y, Emoto M, Serizawa K, Rai S, Hirase C, Kanai Y, et al. HIV-negative primary bone marrow Hodgkin lymphoma manifesting with a high fever associated with hemophagocytosis as the initial symptom: a case report and review of the previous literature. Intern Med. 2015;54(11):1393–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Suzuki T, Kusumoto S, Masaki A, Ishida T, Inagaki H, Iida S, et al. CD30-positive primary bone marrow lymphoma mimicking Hodgkin lymphoma. Int J Hematol. 2015;101(2):109–11.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ponzoni M, Fumagalli L, Rossi G, Freschi M, Re A, Vigano MG, et al. Isolated bone marrow manifestation of HIV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma. Mod Pathol. 2002;15(12):1273–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Gerard L, Oksenhendler E. Hodgkin’s lymphoma as a cause of fever of unknown origin in HIV infection. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2003;17(10):495–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Salama ME, Perkins SL, Mariappan MR. Images in HIV/AIDS. Primary bone marrow presentation of Epstein-Barr virus-driven HIV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma. AIDS Read. 2007;17(12):604–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Corti M, Villafane M, Minue G, Campitelli A, Narbaitz M, Gilardi L. Clinical features of AIDS patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma with isolated bone marrow involvement: report of 12 cases at a single institution. Cancer Biol Med. 2015;12(1):41–5.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© The Author(s). 2018

Advertisement