This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Thyroid metastasis from small cell lung carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature
© Can and Köksal. 2015
Received: 23 February 2015
Accepted: 11 September 2015
Published: 7 October 2015
Small cell lung carcinoma frequently metastasizes to lymph nodes, liver, adrenal glands, bone, brain and pleura. Metastasis of small cell lung cancer to the thyroid gland is extremely rare.
A 55-year-old Turkish man presented with a mediastinal mass intermingled with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, measuring 11cm in total, and encasing superior vena cava and deviating his trachea, esophagus and vascular structures. He had superior vena cava syndrome. His thyroid appeared normal on computed tomography of his chest. A bronchoscopic biopsy showed small cell lung carcinoma. Chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide and external radiotherapy was given. Six months after the presentation, multiple brain metastases were detected on magnetic resonance imaging. Chemotherapy was changed to topotecan and cranial irradiation was performed. At the same time, a right thyroid nodule was detected on computed tomography of his chest and showed growth in size in the following 4 months. A palpable right thyroid nodule came to our attention at that time, the 10th month of presentation. Free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, antithyroglobulin and antithyroid peroxidase antibodies were within normal limits. Thyroid ultrasonography showed a right thyroid lobe 26.2×16.8×15.7mm hypoechoic solid nodule with irregular borders. Ultrasonography-guided thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy showed metastasis from small cell lung carcinoma. His cranial metastases worsened. He developed right cervical lymph node, hepatic, pancreatic and meningeal metastases and died 15 months after the initial presentation and 9 months after the detection of thyroid metastasis by computed tomography of his chest. Our case and two previously reported cases were male, 55-years old or older and had history of more than 40 pack-years of cigarette smoking. All had metastatic disease elsewhere, when the thyroid metastasis was diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. All had poor survival, between 9 and 18 months, after thyroid metastasis was diagnosed.
We conclude that in a patient with a known history of malignant disease, the finding of a new thyroid mass should be promptly evaluated with a thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy to search for metastatic disease. The clinical features of our and two previously reported cases were summarized.
KeywordsNeoplasm metastasis Small cell lung carcinoma Thyroid metastasis
Although the thyroid gland has a rich vascular supply, carcinomas rarely metastasize to the thyroid . The primary carcinomas that metastasize to the thyroid are renal cell (48.1%), colorectal (10.4%), lung (8.3%) and breast (7.8%) carcinomas, melanoma (4%), sarcoma (4%) and other types (17.4%) . Among the lung carcinomas metastasizing to the thyroid, adenocarcinomas are the commonest followed by squamous cell carcinomas [1–5]. Small cell and large cell carcinomas rarely metastasize to the thyroid gland [6–8]. Small cell lung cancer is a rapidly progressive malignancy with a poor survival rate. Small cell lung cancers frequently metastasize to lymph nodes, liver, adrenal glands, bone, brain and pleura. Metastasis of small cell lung cancer to the thyroid is a very rare clinical encounter [6, 7]. We report a case of small cell lung carcinoma that metastasized to the thyroid gland and review the clinical literature.
The clinical detection of thyroid metastasis from nonthyroid primary tumors is an extremely rare event, but autopsy series report somewhat higher rates. In a postmortem study performed on patients who died of advanced cancer, the rate of metastasis to the thyroid gland was 8.6% . A meticulous autopsy study (Reference  could not be located in PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct and Turkish Academic Network and Information Center and was cross-referred from reference ) that microscopically examined at least one slice of thyroid for every 5 gram of tissue in patients who died of metastatic cancer reported the rate of thyroid metastasis as 24.2% [10, 11]. The clinical finding of thyroid metastasis from a nonthyroid primary tumor is much less common, although the incidence depends on how vigorously this is sought. Thyroid metastasis of nonthyroid primary cancers represented 0.16% of all thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsies and 1.9% of all thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsies that were categorized as malignant in a multicenter study from the USA and Europe . In an analysis of thyroidectomy specimens performed on patients with a solitary thyroid metastasis (patients with multiple metastases to other sites were excluded), Calzolari et al. reported the prevalence of intrathyroid metastasis as 0.15% . Chung et al. reviewed secondary thyroid tumors reported between 2000 and 2010, and concluded that among the 293 patients with adequate data, 60% of cases had extrathyroid metastases, either diagnosed previously or concomitantly with thyroid metastasis . Up to 40% of metastases were solitary to the thyroid gland and presented as isolated thyroid metastasis . In only 20% of the cases were the diagnosis of nonthyroid primary cancer and the detection of thyroid metastases concurrent . There are only a few reported cases of thyroid metastasis from small cell lung cancer [6, 7]. Therefore, we decided to report this particular case and review similar cases in the clinical literature. Our literature review focused on articles published in the English language and excluded autopsy series and a case reported earlier in another language .
Clinical features of the current and previously reported* cases of small cell lung carcinoma with thyroid metastasis
Author, year, reference
Ozgu et al. 2012 
Katsenos et al. 2013 
Can and Köksal 2015 (this report)
CAD, PTCA, DM
HTN, HL, hip prosthesis
Hyperthyroid due to toxic MNG
Other sites of metastasis‡
Cervical and mediastinal LN, cerebellar mets
Time to detection of metastasis
Diagnosis of thyroid metastasis
Chemotherapy, cranial irradiation
Chemotherapy, lung and cranial irradiation
Survival after diagnosis of thyroid metastasis
Our patient was euthyroid without evidence of autoimmune thyroid disease. Ozgu et al. reported the coexistence of toxic multinodular goiter and thyroid metastasis from small cell lung cancer in a patient with thyrotoxicosis . Primary nonthyroid tumors may also cause thyrotoxicosis due to massive metastasis causing destructive thyroiditis .
In all three reported patients with thyroid metastasis of small cell lung cancer, the diagnosis was established by thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy (Table 1). In their recent review of thyroid metastases from nonthyroid malignancies, Chung et al. estimated that thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy provided the correct diagnosis in 73.7% of patients . Pusztaszeri et al. reported that thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy categorized 87% of thyroid metastasis of nonthyroid primary carcinomas to malignant or to the suspicious for follicular neoplasm group, the categories that call for surgical intervention as the treatment approach . These sensitivity rates for secondary carcinomas are similar to the sensitivity rate of 83% (range 65 to 98%) for thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy for detection of primary carcinomas in thyroid nodules . The difficulty of distinguishing primary thyroid anaplastic carcinoma or poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma from metastatic high-grade malignancy is reported to be a source of error for accurate cytological interpretation in the evaluation of secondary thyroid tumors [1, 5].
None of the cases of thyroid metastasis from small cell lung carcinoma underwent thyroidectomy (Table 1). All were treated with chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin and etoposide or chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Surgery was not considered in our case, because there were cerebral metastases and surgical excision is not a recommended modality in the management of small cell lung carcinoma. Osawa et al. reported the case of a 67-year-old man diagnosed with stage IIIA (T2N2M0) small cell lung cancer who was treated with cisplatin and etoposide followed by cranial irradiation . Four years later, an isolated thyroid metastasis was diagnosed. A thyroid metastasectomy showed large cell carcinoma. Review of the initial lung material showed both small and large cells in the tumor. The authors concluded that the patient had a combined small and large cell carcinoma in his lung as the primary, and the large cell component metastasized to the thyroid gland . As the large cell carcinoma component metastasized to the thyroid, we did not include this case in Table 1.
The appearance of thyroid metastasis is thought to indicate a poor prognosis. Earlier case reports or series presented the average survival from diagnosis to death as 2 months in lung carcinomas with thyroid metastasis [4, 11]. The survival of the recently reported patients in 2012 and 2013 and our patient ranged between 9 and 18 months (Table 1 and personal e-mail communication with Stamatis Katsenos, MD, PhD on 16 November 2014) and probably reflects the effect of improved treatment modalities in the last few years compared to previous decades. From a case series of 25 patients with solitary intrathyroid metastasis, Calzolari et al. reported that patients with a single metastatic lesion on the thyroid from a nonthyroid primary carcinoma had better survival than those with multiple metastases to the thyroid .
The incidence of primary thyroid cancer is on the rise , but it is not known if the incidence of thyroid metastases from nonthyroid malignancies is also on the rise. There is an increase in the number of case reports of nonthyroid primary cancer metastasis to the thyroid gland. From the Mayo Clinic, only two cases of thyroid metastasis from nonthyroid primary cancers were observed in thyroid surgeries performed between 1892 and 1932 , 14 cases were reported from the preceding 55-year period in 1964 , 12 cases during the preceding 21-year period in 1982 , 15 cases during the preceding 6-year period in 1987 , and 39 cases in the preceding 10-year period in 1997 . The upper limit of the preceding years ended a few years earlier than the publication dates of the Mayo Clinic reports. In 2010, Chung et al. reported 372 cases of thyroid metastases of nonthyroid malignancies and pointed out that there is an apparent increase in the number of reported cases of thyroid metastasis from nonthyroid primary tumors . This observed increase can be attributed to the growth of the population  resulting in an increasing number of cases of cancer and thus metastasis, an increase in the number of journals facilitating publication  or an increase in the incidence of nonthyroid cancer . Increasing use of imaging technologies, such as positron emission tomography, more frequent use of thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy and improved survival of patients with disseminated cancer probably contributed to the increased number of case reports of thyroid metastasis from nonthyroid primary carcinomas [1, 2].
Primary small cell carcinomas originating from the urinary bladder  and uterine cervix  have also been reported to metastasize to the thyroid gland. Primary small cell carcinoma of the thyroid is a very rare entity . After the introduction of immunohistochemistry, some of the previously diagnosed primary small cell carcinomas of the thyroid were diagnosed as primary lymphomas, poorly differentiated insular carcinomas of the thyroid or small cell variants of medullary carcinomas . A variety of neuroendocrine tumors have also been reported to metastasize to the thyroid .
In view of our clinical experience of this reported case, we suggest that the finding of a new thyroid nodule in a patient with a known malignancy should trigger a search for metastasis. Secondary thyroid tumors after a nonthyroid primary tumor are rare. Ultrasonography-guided thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy aids in the diagnosis and helps to differentiate whether the nodule in question is a benign thyroid nodule, a primary thyroid carcinoma or metastatic thyroid carcinoma.
We report a rare case of thyroid metastasis from small cell lung carcinoma. After reviewing previously reported cases [6, 7] and our case, we conclude that the appearance of a thyroid nodule during follow-up of patients with a prior history of malignancy should be promptly evaluated with a thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy to search for metastatic disease.
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of a case report and accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.
We thank Kemal Şarman, MD from Istanbul Pathology Group, Istanbul, Turkey for evaluation of biopsy specimens. This case was presented as a poster in the combined 15th International Congress of Endocrinology and 14th European Congress of Endocrinology (ICE-ECE 2012) between 5 and 9 May 2012 in Florence, Italy.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Pusztaszeri M, Wang H, Cibas ES, Powers CN, Bongiovanni M, Ali S, et al. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of secondary neoplasms of the thyroid gland: A multi-institutional study of 62 cases. Cancer Cytopathol. 2015;123:19–29.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chung AY, Tran TB, Brumund KT, Weisman RA, Bouvet M. Metastases to the thyroid: a review of the literature from the last decade. Thyroid. 2012;22:258–68.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moghaddam PA, Cornejo KM, Khan A. Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland: a single institution 20-year experience and review of the literature. Endocr Pathol. 2013;24:116–24.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Singh R, Lehl SS, Sachdev A, Handa U, D’Cruz S, Bhalla A. Metastasis to thyroid from lung carcinoma. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2003;45:203–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nakhjavani MK, Gharib H, Goellner JR, van Heerden JA. Metastasis to the thyroid gland. A report of 43 cases. Cancer. 1997;79:574–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ozgu ES, Gen R, Ilvan A, Ozge C, Polat A, Vayisoglu Y. Small cell lung cancer with metastasis to the thyroid in a patient with toxic multinodular goiter. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:e614–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Katsenos S, Archondakis S, Vaias M, Skoulikaris N. Thyroid gland metastasis from small cell lung cancer: an unusual site of metastatic spread. J Thorac Dis. 2013;5:E21–4.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Osawa M, Takigawa N, Kiura K, Ichimura K, Matsuoka J, Hotta K, et al. Isolated metastasis of lung cancer to the thyroid gland. Lung Cancer. 2007;58:156–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shimaoka K, Sokal JE, Pickren JW. Metastatic neoplasms in the thyroid gland. Pathological and clinical findings. Cancer. 1962;15:557–65.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Silverberg SG, Vidone RA. Metastatic tumors in the thyroid. Pacif Med Surg. 1966;74:175–80.Google Scholar
- McCabe DP, Farrar WB, Petkov TM, Finkelmeier W, O’Dwyer P, James A. Clinical and pathologic correlations in disease metastatic to the thyroid gland. Am J Surg. 1985;150:519–23.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Calzolari F, Sartori PV, Talarico C, Parmeggiani D, Beretta E, Pezzullo L, et al. Surgical treatment of intrathyroid metastases: preliminary results of a multicentric study. Anticancer Res. 2008;28:2885–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rigaud C, Bogomoletz WV, Delisle MJ, Diebold MD, Caulet T. Metastatic cancers of the thyroid gland. Diagnostic difficulties. Bull Cancer. 1987;74:117–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Miyakawa M, Sato K, Hasegawa M, Nagai A, Sawada T, Tsushima T, et al. Severe thyrotoxicosis induced by thyroid metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma: a case report and review of the literature. Thyroid. 2001;11:883–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gharib H, Papini E, Paschke R, Duick DS, Valcavi R, Hegedus L, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Nodules. Endocr Pract. 2010;16 Suppl 1:1–43.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- La Vecchia C, Malvezzi M, Bosetti C, Garavello W, Bertuccio P, Levi F, et al. Thyroid cancer mortality and incidence: A global overview. Int J Cancer. 2015;136:2187–95.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wychulis AR, Beahrs OH, Woolner LB. Metastasis of carcinoma to the thyroid gland. Ann Surg. 1964;160:169–77.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Czech JM, Lichtor TR, Carney JA, van Heerden JA. Neoplasms metastatic to the thyroid gland. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1982;155:503–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Smith SA, Gharib H, Goellner JR. Fine-needle aspiration. Usefulness for diagnosis and management of metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid. Arch Intern Med. 1987;147:311–2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The World Bank. World development indicators: population dynamics. http://wdi.worldbank.org/table/2.1. Accessed 23 February 2015.
- Ware M, Mabe M. The stm report: An overview of scientific and scholarly journal publishing. http://www.stm-assoc.org/2012_12_11_STM_Report_2012.pdf. Accessed 23 February 2015.
- Siegel R, Ma J, Zou Z, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2014. CA Cancer J Clin. 2014;64:9–29.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Puente S, Velasco A, Gallel P, Pallares J, Perez-Ruiz L, Ros S, et al. Metastatic small cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland: a pathologic and molecular study demonstrating the origin in the urinary bladder. Endocr Pathol. 2008;19:190–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li W, Molnar S, Cantley R, Kurtycz DF, De Las Casas LE. Metastatic small cell carcinoma of uterine cervix to the thyroid gland diagnosed by ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (US-FNA) Cytology: A Proactive approach. Diagn Cytopathol. 2015;43(4):349–51.Google Scholar
- Eloy C, Cameselle-Teijeiro JM, Rousseau E, Sobrinho-Simoes M. Small cell tumors of the thyroid gland: a review. Int J Surg Pathol. 2014;22:197–201.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sivrikoz E, Ozbey NC, Kaya B, Erbil Y, Kaya S, Yilmazbayhan D, et al. Neuroendocrine tumors presenting with thyroid gland metastasis: a case series. J Med Case Rep. 2012;6:73.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar