This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Scrotal cutaneous verruciform xanthoma with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 immunohistochemical study: a case report
© Ito et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 7 March 2012
Accepted: 8 June 2012
Published: 31 August 2012
Verruciform xanthoma is a rare, benign lesion characterized by hyperkeratosis and aggregates of foam cell macrophages. Here, we describe a case of verruciform xanthoma on the scrotum, in which the immunohistochemical localization of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, a chemokine of the C-C or beta family that has been shown to induce the recruitment of monocytes for injured tissue, was analyzed to determine which cells release chemoattractants for macrophages.
A 75-year-old Japanese man with a well-defined nodule on the left scrotum was admitted to the hospital. An excision biopsy revealed epidermal papillary proliferation with parakeratosis, hyperkeratosis, and infiltration of foam cell macrophages, whereby a pathological diagnosis of benign cutaneous verruciform xanthoma was made. Immunohistochemically, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was observed predominantly on cytokeratin AE1/AE3-positive differentiating keratinocytes in the prickle cell layer. However, while infiltrating macrophages were densely stained for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, keratinocytes in the basal and parabasal layers were almost negative.
We demonstrated that keratinocyte-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 plays an important role in the establishment of particular histological features of verruciform xanthoma. However, in the present case, unlike in previous reports, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 immunostaining in keratinocytes in the basal and parabasal layers was not prominent. We speculate that in the active phase of verruciform xanthoma, when continuous stimuli that release monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 from keratinocytes to the surrounding stromal area are present, the apparent immunostaining of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 can be underestimated because of the void created by accelerated keratinocyte release from the cytoplasmic fraction.
Verruciform xanthoma (VX) is an uncommon, benign lesion first reported in the oral cavity in 1971 . A survey of 282 cases of VX involving different mucocutaneous sites has established the lesion as a distinct clinicopathologic entity . It occurs mainly in oral mucosa and occasionally at extra-oral sites, including those on the penis , the scrotum , and the vulva . Clinically, the lesion is painless, asymptomatic, slow growing (up to 2cm in size), and slightly elevated with a yellowish, reddish, or grayish rough and granular surface , mimicking conventional papilloma, verrucous carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma . Histologically, VX is characterized by papillomatosis, parakeratosis, and accumulation of foam cell macrophages [1, 8, 9].
This study describes a case of VX on the scrotum and analyzes the immunohistochemical localization of the major macrophage chemotactic factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), to elucidate the particular tumor-macrophage interaction in VX.
To determine which cells release chemoattractants for macrophages, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections were stained for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3, M3515; Dako, Carpinteria, CA, USA; 1:200), CD68 (M0876; Dako; 1:100) and MCP-1 (DA103; BD Biosciences, San Diego, CA, USA; 1:40, 1:200, 1:800). After microwave heat-induced epitope retrieval, endogenous peroxidase activity was blocked with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in methanol. Indirect immunohistochemistry with the use of horseradish peroxidase conjugated anti-mouse rabbit antibody revealed that cytokeratin AE1/AE3 was strongly positive in differentiating epidermal keratinocytes, and weakly positive in keratinocytes in the basal and parabasal layers (Figure 2b). However, strong CD68 staining was observed almost exclusively in foamy cells infiltrating beneath the basal cells (Figure 2c). The parts densely stained for MCP-1 were observed in the differentiating cytokeratin AE1/AE3-positive keratinocytes. Clusters of the infiltrating macrophages also stained positive for MCP-1 (Figure 2d).
Previous studies revealed a possible pathogenesis of VX that included the local release of lipid by damaged keratinocytes through inflammation . Under the assumption that MCP-1 produced by the proliferating keratinocytes, especially by those with close contact with foamy macrophages, plays some roles in developing this particular histological feature, we investigated the immunohistochemical localization of MCP-1. In the present case, however, MCP-1 expression was observed in keratinocytes in the papilloma lesion, but its localization was observed predominantly in differentiating keratinocytes in the prickle cell layer.
MCP-1, produced by many types of cells, is a chemokine of the C-C or beta family that has been shown to induce the recruitment of monocytes for injured tissue; its excessive production by keratinocytes has been implicated in psoriasis and other inflammatory skin diseases; transgenic mice that express murine MCP-1 in the basal layer of epidermis do not, however, exhibit spontaneous cutaneous inflammation or any other discernible skin pathology, but show hypersensitivity responses to elicited inflammation in the skin by the recruitment of dendritic and Langerhans cells . One of the apparent pathophysiological roles of MCP-1 in the skin is, therefore, chemotaxis of immunomodulators to the skin, and the overexpression of MCP-1 per se may be a requisite but not sufficient condition for causing VX.
A previous immunohistochemical study on a series of VX cases has revealed that MCP-1 localizes in the basal layer of the epidermis . To explain an aspect of such immunohistochemical differences, we formulated two hypotheses: firstly, scarring beneath the basal layer prevented basal cells from releasing MCP-1, as reported for keloid-derived fibroblasts , and secondly, accelerated release of MCP-1 exhausted significant amounts of MCP-1 from the cytoplasm of keratinocytes in the basal and parabasal layers. It is well known that the epidermis shows a reparative phenotype when overlying a scar or the sclerotic dermis of lichen sclerosus [13, 14]. This stromal-keratinocyte interaction is believed to account for the change of keratin AE1 expression from from basal keratinocytes in normal skin to spinous keratinocytes in scars and lichen sclerosus. Thus, our finding of MCP-1 expression in spinous keratinocytes, rather than the basal layer, may be the consequence of an altered dermal/stromal phenotype. It is likely not coincidence that both lichen sclerosus and verruciform xanthoma also show dermal lymphedema; the latter is thought to be the consequence of the former . Additionally, when continuous stimuli to release MCP-1 from keratinocytes to the surrounding stromal area is present, apparent immunostaining of MCP-1 can be underestimated. Also, MCP-1 immunohistochemically localizes in infiltrating or aggregating macrophages themselves . Thus, macrophages recruited by MCP-1 may sustain themselves in both paracrine and autocrine ways.
Although other factors associated with MCP-1 that characterize particular histopathological features of VX have not yet been established, we speculate that MCP-1 expression in proliferating and differentiating keratinocytes may have a supplemental role in the establishment of VX.
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.
We thank Ms Yuki Takaoka for technical assistance.
- Shafer W: Verruciformxanthoma. Oral Surg. 1971, 31: 784-789. 10.1016/0030-4220(71)90134-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Philipsen HP, Reichart PA, Takata T, Ogawa I: Verruciform xanthoma - biological profile of 282 oral lesions based on a literature survey with nine new cases from Japan. Oral Oncol. 2003, 39: 325-336. 10.1016/S1368-8375(02)00088-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kraemer BB, Schmidt WA, Foucar E, Rosen T: Verruciform xanthoma of the penis. Arch Dermatol. 1981, 117: 516-518. 10.1001/archderm.1981.01650080070034.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kimura S: Verruciform xanthoma of the scrotum. Arch Dermatol. 1984, 120: 1378-1379. 10.1001/archderm.1984.01650460118032.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Santa Cruz DJ, Martin AS: Verruciform xanthoma of the vulva. Report of two cases. Am J Clin Pathol. 1979, 71: 224-228.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sklavounou A, Laskaris G, Angelopoulos A: Verruciform xanthoma of the oral mucosa. Dermatologica. 1982, 164: 41-46. 10.1159/000250064.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Toida M, Koizumi H: Verruciform xanthoma involving the lip: a case report. J Oral MaxillofacSurg. 1993, 51: 432-434. 10.1016/S0278-2391(10)80363-5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ji-an H, Li Y, Li S: Verruciform xanthoma of oral cavity: clinicopathological study relating pathogenesis. APMIS. 2005, 113: 629-634. 10.1111/j.1600-0463.2005.apm_238.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Oliveira PT, Jaeger RG, Cabral LAG, Carvalho YR, Costa ALL, Jaeger MMM: Verruciform xanthoma of the oral mucosa. Report of four cases and a review of the literature. Oral Oncol. 2001, 37: 326-331. 10.1016/S1368-8375(00)00068-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cumberland L, Dana A, Resh B, Fitzpatrick J, Goldenberg G: Verruciform xanthoma in the setting of cutaneous trauma and chronic inflammation: report of a patient and a brief review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol. 2010, 37: 895-900.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nakamura K, Williams IR, Kupper TS: Keratinocyte-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1): analysis in a transgenic model demonstrates MCP-1 can recruit dendritic and Langerhans cells to skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1995, 105: 635-643. 10.1111/1523-1747.ep12324061.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ide F, Obara K, Yamada H, Mishima K, Saito I, Kusama K: Cellular basis of verruciform xanthoma: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characterization. Oral Dis. 2008, 14: 150-157. 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2007.01362.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fa-Lai Y, Shen H-D, Tai H-Y: Decreased production of MCP-1 and MMP-2 by keloid-derived fibroblasts. Burns. 2009, 35: 348-351. 10.1016/j.burns.2008.06.018.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carlson JA, Carlson GD, Murphy M, Rohwedder A: Lichen sclerosus exhibiting histologic signs of lymphedema: an essential factor in the pathogenesis of verruciform xanthoma. Arch Dermatol. 2012, 148: 260-262. 10.1001/archdermatol.2011.1536.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lu S, Rohwedder A, Murphy M, Carlson JA: Verruciform xanthoma: localized lymphedema (elephantiasis) is an essential pathogenic factor. J Cutan Pathol. 2012, 39: 391-394. 10.1111/j.1600-0560.2011.01691.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Muraoka A, Suehiro I, Fujii M, Ueno H, Hayashi S, Shimizu K, Kitazawa R, Kitazawa S, Murakami K: Type IIa early gastric cancer with proliferation of xanthoma cells. J Gastroenterol. 1998, 33: 326-329. 10.1007/s005350050091.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.