This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Severe thrombocytosis and anemia associated with celiac disease in a young female patient: a case report
© Voigt et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2008
Received: 29 May 2007
Accepted: 01 April 2008
Published: 01 April 2008
Platelet counts exceeding 1.000 × 103/μl are usually considered secondary to another cause, particularly to chronic myeloproliferative disease (CMPD). Reactive thrombocytosis due to iron deficiency rarely exceeds platelet counts of 700 × 103/μl.
Here we report the case of a young woman presenting with clinical signs of severe anemia. Laboratory findings confirmed an iron-deficiency anemia associated with severe thrombocytosis of 1703 × 103/μl. Macroscopic gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract bleeding was excluded. The excessive elevation of platelets, slightly elevated lactate dehydrogenase and slightly elevated leukocytes along with the absence of other inflammation parameters raised the suspicion of an underlying hematological disease. However, bone marrow evaluation could not prove the suspected diagnosis of a CMPD, especially essential thrombocythemia (ET). In the further clinical course the platelet count returned to normal after raising the hemoglobin to a level close to normal range with erythrocyte transfusion, and normalization of serum iron and decline of erythropoietin. Finally, following small bowel biopsy, despite the absence of typical clinical signs, celiac disease was diagnosed. After discharge from hospital the patient was commenced on a gluten-free diet and her hemoglobin almost completely normalized in the further follow-up period.
This case illustrates the rare constellation of an extreme thrombocytosis most likely secondary to iron deficiency due to celiac disease. This represents, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the highest reported platelet count coincident with iron deficiency. A potential mechanism for the association of iron-deficiency anemia and thrombocytosis is discussed. Even in the presence of 'atypically' high platelets one should consider the possibility of reactive thrombocytosis. Extreme thrombocytosis could emerge in the case of iron deficiency secondary to celiac disease.
Differential diagnosis for thrombocytosis
Typical causes of thrombocytosis
• Chronic myeloproliferative disorders such as CML, PV, ET
• Certain myelodysplastic syndromes such as 5q-syndrome
• Underlying or occult malignancy
• Chronic inflammatory or infectious disease
• Drug induced (for example, Vincristine, ATRA, cytokines, growth factors)
• Secondary after hemolytic crisis or hemorrhage
• Iron deficiency
The causes of iron deficiency are diverse and span from chronic gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract bleeding, insufficient iron intake from the diet or impaired intestinal iron absorption. One possible underlying intestinal disease associated with impaired iron absorption is celiac disease [3, 4]. Previously, celiac disease was usually considered in patients who had signs of malabsorption and signs of gastrointestinal dysfunction such as diarrhea or steatorrhea, weight loss or impaired development. Furthermore, it is often associated with multiple deficiencies of macro- and micro-nutrients . It has only recently become clear that in addition to the classical form of celiac disease there is a broad span of atypical forms that sometimes even completely lack the typical signs of celiac disease [3, 5]. Hematologic manifestations of celiac disease have been recently published by Halfdanarson et al . These include thrombocytopenia, thrombocytosis, leukopenia, venous thromboembolism or anemia secondary to malabsorption of iron, folic acid and/or vitamin B12. The prevalence of anemia varies with different reports of values between 12% and 69% and might be the major presenting feature. The diagnosis of celiac disease is usually made through small bowel biopsies and testing for anti-endomysial or anti-tissue-transglutaminase antibodies .
In November 2006 a 25-year-old Palestinian woman was admitted to our emergency care unit with symptoms of vertigo and fatigue. She was in overall reduced physical condition, her skin and mucous membranes were pale and she suffered from infantile cerebral paresis and mental retardation. Her vital parameters were stable and there were no signs of hemorrhagic shock. Physical examination was normal with the exception of a reduced body mass index of 15.26. There were no signs of macroscopic bleeding from the gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract. The patient's mother reported no weight loss over the past few years and normal caloric intake and no gastrointestinal problems. There were no signs of acute or chronic inflammation.
As the patient presented with severe microcytic iron-deficiency anemia, we performed diagnostic investigations to rule out chronic bleeding with endoscopy of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract and gynecological examination, all with negative results. Biopsies were taken. The patient underwent blood transfusion with regular increases in hemoglobin, which remained stable in the further course. Since the patient presented initially with a slightly elevated lactate dehydrogenase, extreme thrombocytosis and severe anemia with reduced reticulocytes in addition to excessive elevated erythropoietin, we performed further diagnostic investigations including ultrasound examination of the abdomen and a bone marrow biopsy to rule out a myeloproliferative syndrome, in particular ET. The ultrasound finding was normal with the exception of a slightly enlarged spleen that was 12 cm in longitudinal diameter. On the bone marrow smear, megakaryopoesis was significantly elevated. There were juvenile megakaryocytes which sometimes appeared to be clustered. Few megakaryocytes were hyperlobated. Erythopoesis was judged to be increased and not dysplastic. An iron stain revealed clearly decreased storage iron. Other findings were normal. Notably, the typical signs of myeloproliferative disease syndrome such as basophilic or eosinophilic precursors were absent. Overall, the bone marrow smear as well as the histological evaluation of the bone marrow biopsy did not support the possible diagnosis of ET (Figure 1B). Cytogenetic analysis of the bone marrow did not show any abnormalities.
Despite the absence of typical clinical symptoms, histological examination of her duodenal mucosa showed typical signs of celiac disease of the infiltrative type, MARSH-Type I. At discharge from hospital, we recommended a gluten-free diet and the patient remained free of symptoms with a stable hemoglobin.
The clinical presentation of celiac disease is variable ranging from a "typical" form with diarrhea, steatorrhea, weight loss and impaired development, to forms with much more subtle symptoms or even a complete lack of typical clinical symptoms [3, 6]. The patient in this case did not suffer from any typical signs of celiac disease but rather presented with signs of severe iron-deficiency anemia. No bleeding source could be detected despite appropriate diagnostic investigations and thus, in light of the extreme thrombocytosis, an underlying hematologic disease was suspected initially. However, bone marrow smear and bone marrow biopsy failed to provide support for the diagnosis of ET or another type of myeloproliferative disease. Furthermore, after transfusion of four erythrocyte concentrates, the platelet count completely normalized within two weeks. According to the WHO criteria, this rules out the possibility of ET since a sustained elevation of platelets of at least 600 × 103/μl is mandatory for the diagnosis of ET .
Finally, the patient was diagnosed with celiac disease by small bowel biopsy. As summarized by Halfdanarson et al , anemia and/or thrombocytosis may occur as clinical manifestations of celiac disease in some cases [2, 3]. Thrombocytosis in celiac disease could be secondary to inflammation, iron deficiency or functional hyposplenia . In our case the patient had a severe iron deficiency anemia with a ferritin level below the assay range. Interestingly, as stated by Sanchez and Ewton , in the case of iron deficiency as the underlying cause for thrombocytosis, the platelet count rarely exceeds 700 × 103/μl (see also ). Thus, the case presented here is of iron-deficiency anemia due to celiac disease with an unusually high platelet count, which to the best of the authors' knowledge, is the highest platelet count reported thus far in the literature.
Although there appears to be an association between iron-deficiency anemia and reactive thrombocytosis, the mechanism responsible is still a matter of debate [7–9]. Of interest in this respect is the notion that the amino acid sequence homology of thrombopoietin and erythropoietin might explain thrombocytosis in children with iron-deficiency anemia . In our case, we observed a marked increase in the level of erythropoietin which declined rapidly after transfusion of four erythrocyte concentrates. Blood levels of erythropoietin are upregulated in response to anemia or arterial hypoxemia. Juxtatubular interstitial cells of the renal cortex sense oxygen levels through oxygen-dependent prolyl hydroxylase. This controls the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), the transcription factor for erythropoietin . In women with iron deficiency, Akan et al  reported elevated erythropoietin levels associated with thrombocytosis which both normalized after iron substitution. In the second subgroup of this study there was again a correlation between iron deficiency and erythropoietin levels; however, thrombocytosis in these patients was absent .
An elevation of platelet count was observed in animal studies and in patients with renal failure receiving erythropoietin as medication . Erythropoietin and thrombopoietin belong to the same hematopoietic growth factor subfamily. Taken together, it is tempting to speculate that elevated erythropoietin levels in patients with iron-deficiency anemia lead to thrombocytosis as a result of some kind of cross-reactivity at the level of the thrombopoietin receptor c-mpl because of the homology of some amino acid sequences of erythropoietin to thrombopoietin . The clinical course and correlation of erythropoietin and platelet counts in our patient would be in agreement with this hypothesis. However, recent in vitro data from Broudy et al  provide evidence to the contrary as they found no cross-competition for binding of erythropoietin and thrombopoietin to c-mpl and the erythropoietin receptor. On the other hand, it has been suggested that erythropoietin and thrombopoietin can synergistically stimulate megakaryocyte proliferation owing to signaling of erythropoietin at the level of bipotent erythroid/megakaryocyte progenitor cells [13, 14]. Considering the data of Akan et al , the role of erythropoietin in thrombocytosis in patients with iron deficiency appears to be even more complex since not all patients with iron-deficiency anemia and elevated erythropoietin levels uniformly present with thrombocytosis. Thus, there has to be some kind of additional factor present in some iron-deficiency patients contributing to the stimulatory potential of erythropoietin on thrombopoesis.
In conclusion, even in the presence of an 'atypical' high platelet count one should consider the possibility of reactive thrombocytosis. The exact mechanism of thrombocytosis in iron-deficiency anemia remains to be defined. Cross-reaction between erythropoietin and thrombopoietin receptors owing to structural homology is discussed by some groups but this is contradicted by recent molecular data showing no cross-competition for binding of erythropoietin and thrombopoietin to c-mpl and the erythropoietin receptor. Recent data suggest a synergistic effect of erythropoietin and thrombopoietin on the level of bipotent erythroid/megakaryocyte progenitor cells. However, this fails to explain why not all patients with iron-deficiency anemia and elevated levels of erythropoietin present with thrombocytosis. Therefore, there must be additional, yet undefined mechanisms which contribute to the development of thrombocytosis in some patients with iron deficiency anemia.
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient's next-of-kin for publication of this case report and accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.
- Buss DH, Cashell AW, O'Connor ML, Richards F: Occurrence, etiology and clinical significance of extreme thrombocytosis: a study of 280 cases. Am J Med. 1994, 96: 247-253. 10.1016/0002-9343(94)90150-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sanchez S, Ewton A: Essential thrombocythemia: a review of diagnostic and pathologic features. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2006, 130 (8): 1144-1150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Halfdanarson TR, Litzow MR, Murray JA: Hematologic manifestations of celiac disease. Blood. 2007, 109 (2): 412-421. 10.1182/blood-2006-07-031104.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Carroccio A, Giannitrapani L, Di Prima L, Iannitto E, Montalto G, Notarbartolo A: Extreme thrombocytosis as a sign of coeliac disease in the elderly: case report. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002, 14 (8): 897-900. 10.1097/00042737-200208000-00017.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fasano A: Celiac Disease - How to Handle a Clinical Chameleon. N Engl J Med. 2003, 348 (25): 2568-2570. 10.1056/NEJMe030050.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bottaro G, Cataldo F, Rotolo N, Spina M, Corazza GR: The clinical pattern of subclinical/silent celiac disease: an analysis on 1026 consecutive cases. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999, 94: 691-696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schafer AI: Thrombocytosis. N Engl J Med. 2004, 350 (12): 1211-1219. 10.1056/NEJMra035363.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bilic E, Bilic E: Amino acid sequence homology of thrombopoietin and erythropoietin may explain thrombocytosis in children with iron deficiency anemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2003, 25 (8): 675-676. 10.1097/00043426-200308000-00023.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Akan H, Guven N, Aydogdu I, Arat M, Beksac M, Dalva K: Thrombopoietic cytokines in patients with iron deficiency anemia with or without thrombocytosis. Acta Haematol. 2000, 103 (3): 152-156. 10.1159/000041038.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaushansky K: Lineage-specific hematopoietic growth factors. N Engl J Med. 2006, 354 (19): 2034-2045. 10.1056/NEJMra052706.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Loo M, Beguin Y: The effect of recombinant human erythropoietin on platelet counts is strongly modulated by the adequacy of iron supply. Blood. 1999, 93 (10): 3286-3293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Broudy VC, Lin N, Fox N: Hematopoietic cells display high affinity receptors for thrombopoietin. Blood. 1995, 86: 593a-Google Scholar
- Cardier JE, Erickson-Miller CL, Murphy MJ: Differential effect of erythropoietin and GM-CSF on megakaryocytopoiesis from primitive bone marrow cells in serum-free conditions. Stem Cells. 1997, 15 (4): 286-290.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Broudy VC, Lin NL, Kaushansky K: Thrombopoietin (c-mpl LIgand) Acts Synergistically With Erythropoietin, Stem Cell Factor, and Interleukin-11 to Enhance Murine Megakaryocyte Colony Growth and Increases Megakaryocyte Ploidy In Vitro. Blood. 1995, 85 (7): 1719-1726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.