We reported a rare case of invasive medullary carcinoma arising in EBT. In fact, the prevalence of EBT ranges from 0.4% to 6% in females and from 1% to 3% in males . The axilla, as mentioned in our case, is the most typical location; however, the sternum, infraclavicular region, epigastrium, and vulva have also been described [5, 8]. In up to one-third of patients, EBT might be found in various locations .
The ectopic mammary tissue can experience physiological changes associated with menstrual cycle phases, pregnancy, and even the lactation period, much like the breast tissue in its anatomical position [5, 9, 10]. Similarly, the ectopic breast tissue undergoes the same pathological processes as the eutopic breast [6, 9].
Fibroadenomas, fibrocystic alterations, atypical ductal hyperplasia, phyllodes tumors, mastitis, and abscesses have all been reported in ectopic breasts [10, 11].
Although breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy in women, primary ectopic breast carcinoma (PEBC) is uncommon, accounting for 0.3% of all breast malignancies [5, 8]. Evans et al. and Nardello et al. reported that PEBC is most commonly seen in the axilla, accounting for 58% to 71% of all cases [12, 13].
Owing to this condition’s low prevalence and misidentification, the average time diagnosis is 40.5 months [12, 14]. These lesions are frequently misdiagnosed and may be challenging to identify from benign (skin tag, nevus, lipoma, hidradenitis) or malignant (nodal metastasis, adnexal tumors) axillary masses [15,16,17]. PEBC may present as normal-appearing ectopic breast tissue or as an ulcerated lesion [18, 19], similarly to our case. The appearance of a subcutaneous tumor along the mammary line should alert to the likelihood of PEBC, and the presence of suspicious nodules necessitates histologic examination [12, 20].
Preoperative ultrasonography–mammography is a common procedure. In our case, we considered that it is appropriate to perform MRI because, as suggested in the literature, it might be used to rule out a primary ipsilateral occult primary breast cancer  or to aid surgical planning by identifying the tumor's size and amount of involvement .
The diagnosis of PEBC is confirmed histologically, and ductal carcinoma is described as the common subtype. However, other types of breast cancer, such as lobular, medullary, and papillary carcinomas, have been identified . According to Marshall et al., histological types were distributed as follows: 79% of invasive ductal carcinomas, 9.5% of lobular carcinomas, and 9.5% of medullary carcinomas .
As reported in our case, medullary carcinoma is a rare and unique subtype of breast carcinoma, accounting for fewer than 5% of all invasive breast malignancies .
Despite the lack of published medical literature on PEBC therapy or management guidelines because of the rarity and scarcity of data, orthotopic breast cancer paradigms should be implemented [12, 14].
EBT used to be treated by modified radical mastectomy, excision of ectopic breast tissue, and lymph node dissection; however, patients treated exclusively by excision of the ectopic gland showed encouraging survival rates [5, 13, 16]. Local recurrence can result or occur in both surgical approaches, according to Cogswell et al. . As a result, if the breast is free of any malignant lesion, ipsilateral mastectomy, both radical and modified, is no longer recommended [12, 14].
Our patient’s surgical treatment consisted of wide excision and lymph node dissection with no evidence of local recurrence after 2 years of follow-up.
No published studies evaluate the use of the adjuvant treatment in EBC; only individual patient case reports are available. So if there is no concurrent breast tumor, similarly to our case, surgical excision with large margins of the main tumor combined with lymph node dissection [5, 12, 14], followed by radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or endocrine therapy, is then the ideal procedure for a localized stage .
Evidence on long-term follow-up data and management of PEBCs is limited and ambiguous [4, 5, 10]. EBC appears to have a worse prognosis than cancer in normal breast parenchyma. The prognosis is thought to be poorer because of the diagnosis delay  and the potential to spread regional lymph nodes earlier than typical breast cancer [5, 12, 23, 24].
Owing to the lack of prognostic findings, we believe that a prophylactic excision of ectopic tissue may be indicated for some patients with breast cancer risk factors for whom thorough and close monitoring is difficult [5, 25]. On the other hand, Roorda et al. believe that preventive removal of all ectopic breast glands is required since EBC has a poor prognosis .