Brain abscess is a life-threatening event. Moreover, when Klebsiella pneumoniae is the cause, rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment are required. Klebsiella invasive liver abscess syndrome, a bloodstream metastatic infection of potentially aggressive nature, has been recognized to cause infection in the central nervous system, and concern for Klebsiella liver abscess syndrome is increasing globally.
A 73-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to the institution complaining of aggravated dysarthria and weakness in the right upper extremities with onset 5 days earlier. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a brain abscess in the left basal ganglia, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a liver abscess in liver segment 7. The patient’s dysarthria symptoms became increasingly worse over the next few days, so surgical drainage via frontotemporal craniotomy was performed on admission day 3, and subsequent culture from the brain abscess showed growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae. On admission day 9, percutaneous transhepatic drainage of the liver segment 7 abscess was undertaken. The pus culture also showed growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae, thus associating the liver abscess with the brain abscess. Following long-term conservative treatment with antibiotics and abscess drainage, the liver abscess disappeared. However, the patient continuously presented with right upper quadrant pain, and abdominal computed tomography showed swelling of the gallbladder. Consequently, percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage was initially administered, and the bile culture was also positive for Klebsiella pneumoniae. For radical treatment, a laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed on admission day 99. The postoperative period was complicated by an intraabdominal abscess; however, conservative therapy was successful. She was subsequently discharged, and 12-month follow-up revealed no further sequelae.
We describe a rare case of Klebsiella liver abscess syndrome, which first presented with a central nervous system manifestation. Our patient was successfully treated via an early surgical intervention and subsequent antibiotic therapy. Although surgical drainage remains the cornerstone treatment for brain abscess, when a brain abscess is found, and there is a high index of suspicion for the existence of a liver abscess, Klebsiella liver abscess syndrome should be considered as a possible diagnosis.