Open Access
Open Peer Review

This article has Open Peer Review reports available.

How does Open Peer Review work?

Respiratory tract isolation of Mycobacterium europaeum following influenza infection in an immunocompromised patient: a case report

  • Michael Phelippeau1,
  • Marion Delord1,
  • Michel Drancourt1, 2Email author and
  • Philippe Brouqui1
Contributed equally
Journal of Medical Case Reports20148:463

https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-1947-8-463

Received: 4 September 2014

Accepted: 2 December 2014

Published: 25 December 2014

Abstract

Introduction

Mycobacterium europaeum, a slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium simiae complex, was described after the seminal characterization of five isolates collected from three sputum specimens and a jaw gland biopsy in Italy, Greece and Sweden. Five respiratory tract isolates were further reported in Iran. Here, we report the first isolation of M. europaeum in France, in the respiratory tract of a patient co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus.

Case presentation

A 49-year-old Caucasian woman with a 26-year history of human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis C virus co-infection was admitted for significant influenza-like syndrome in a context of repetitive exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Significant biological parameters included lymphocytes of 1.6G/L including 237/mm3 T4 lymphocytes, a human immunodeficiency virus viral load of 1.6 log and a hepatitis C virus viral load of 6 log. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of her nasopharyngeal aspiration confirmed influenza A H1N1. Three sputum specimens lacked acid-fast bacilli but one grew mycobacteria identified by using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry as M. europaeum with a 1.56 log score. A 1,482-bp 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequence yielded 99% similarity with both Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum ATCC BAA-614 and M. europaeum DSM 45397T and partial rpoB polymerase chain reaction-sequencing yielded a 725-bp sequence exhibiting 100% similarity with M. europaeum strain DSM 45397T.

Conclusions

We report the first isolation of M. europaeum in France, in the respiratory tract of a patient co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus. M. europaeum warrants further attention in immunosuppressed patients with influenza, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry and rpoB partial sequencing as tools for its accurate identification.

Keywords

HIVInfluenzaMALDI-TOF-MS Mycobacterium europaeum rpoB

Introduction

Mycobacterium europaeum, a slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) belonging to the Mycobacterium simiae complex, was described after the seminal characterization of five isolates collected from three sputum specimens and a jaw gland biopsy in Italy, Greece and Sweden [1]. Five respiratory tract isolates were further reported in Iran [2] from two different infected patients according to the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America (ATS/IDSA criteria for NTM lung disease [3]. In fact, ATS/IDSA criteria for NTM lung infection combine clinical pulmonary criteria, new radiological opacities, and, positive culture results from several respiratory tract samples [3]. Here, we report the first isolation of M. europaeum in France, in the respiratory tract of a patient co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV).

Case presentation

A 49-year-old Caucasian woman with a 26-year history of HIV-HCV co-infection was admitted to an Infectious and Tropical Diseases Department in Marseille, France in February 2014 for significant influenza-like syndrome in a context of repetitive exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pulmonary auscultation found diffuse wheezing. Significant biological parameters included a C-reactive protein level of 57mg/L, lymphocytes of 1.6G/L including 237/mm3 T4 lymphocytes, a HIV viral load of 1.6 log and a HCV viral load of 6 log. Her chest radiography was normal. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of her nasopharyngeal aspiration confirmed influenza A H1N1. At a 6-month follow-up, her clinical outcome was favorable with initial supportive treatment only. Three sputum specimens lacked acid-fast bacilli (AFB) after Ziehl–Neelsen staining and microscopic observation but one grew AFB after 21-day incubation in MGIT (Becton Dickinson, Le Pont-de-Claix, France) at 37°C in a 5% carbon dioxide atmosphere. After subculture on Coletsos (bioMérieux, La-Balme-les-Grottes, France), the isolate was deposited in our collection (CSUR P1344) and tentatively identified by using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), the bioMérieux extraction protocol, a MicroFlex™ mass spectrometer (Bruker Daltonics, Bremen, Germany) and the Bruker MALDI Biotyper procedures as previously described [4]. A reproducible profile (Figure 1A) yielded a 1.56 log score with M. europaeum DSM 45397T listed in the Bruker Mycobacterium Library 1.0 and 2.0 databases. A 1,482-bp 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequence (GenBank LN680852) yielded 99% similarity with both Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum ATCC BAA-614 (GenBank GQ153273) and M. europaeum DSM 45397T (GenBank HM022196), two species known to share almost identical 16S rRNA gene sequence [1]. Partial rpoB PCR-sequencing [5] yielded a 725-bp sequence (GenBank LK021335) exhibiting 100% similarity with M. europaeum strain DSM 45397T (GenBank HM022215; Figure 1B).
Figure 1

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/ time-of-flight analysis of Mycobacterium europaeum . A. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry profile of Mycobacterium europaeum CSUR P1344 using colonies from egg-based Löwenstein–Jensen medium. B. Phylogenetic tree constructed using the neighbor-joining method (bootstrapped 1000 times) and Kimura’s two-parameter distance correction model based on rpoB partial sequences of 18 mycobacterial species including isolate CSUR P1344 collected in our patient’s sputum. Bootstrap values above 90% are given at nodes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was used as out-group. The scale bar represents 1% difference in nucleotide sequences. GenBank accession numbers are given in parentheses. M. is Mycobacterium.

Here, one M. europaeum isolate was made from broth culture whereas the eight previous isolates have been made from agar or egg-based solid medium [1, 2], illustrating the capability of automatons routinely used in laboratories, to detect the growth of M. europaeum. Starting from colonies, this isolate was identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and its profile made freely available at Méditerranée Infection Foundation URMS Database [6] in order to complement the sole profile (M. europaeum DSM 45397T) commercially available.

Conclusions

M. europaeum has not been previously reported in France. Three of the five seminal strains have been isolated from sputum. Of interest, two Iranian patients [2] with a history of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and cystic fibrosis fulfilled the ATS/IDSA criteria for NTM pulmonary infection [3]. Here, clinical, radiological and microbiological findings classified this case as a colonized case [3]. As our understanding about the pathophysiology of M. europaeum lung infection is insufficient, there is not enough known to be sure that colonization is not in fact a slowly progressive infection. In addition, like other species of the M. simiae complex [7, 8], this new species could be clinically relevant when isolated in the respiratory tract of immunocompromised hosts. In fact, NTM should be investigated in the respiratory tract samples of immunocompromised patients because of a higher risk of lung infection that needs particular treatment [3]. Of interest, M. europaeum was here isolated in a patient with laboratory-confirmed influenza, a condition previously associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection [9] through virus-induced interference in the interferon pathway [10]. Interactions between influenza and superinfecting mycobacteria, particularly NTM in the respiratory tract, warrant further attention to be elucidated.

Consent

Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.

Notes

Declarations

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by URMITE, Marseille, France.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Aix Marseille Université, URMITE, UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, Inserm 1095, Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire « Méditerranée Infection », AP-HM
(2)
Unité de recherche sur les maladies infectieuses et tropicales émergentes, Faculté de Médecine

References

  1. Tortoli E, Böttger EC, Fabio A, Falsen E, Gitti Z, Grottola A, Klenk HP, Mannino R, Mariottini A, Messinò M, Pecorari M, Rumpianesi F: Mycobacterium europaeum sp. nov., a scotochromogenic species related to the Mycobacterium simiae complex. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2011, 61: 1606-1611. 10.1099/ijs.0.025601-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Pourahmad F, Shojaei H, Heidarieh P, Khosravi A, Hashemi A: Report of two cases of Mycobacterium europaeum from Iran. Jpn J InfecT Dis. 2012, 65: 539-541. 10.7883/yoken.65.539.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Griffith DE, Aksamit T, Brown-Elliott BA, Catanzaro A, Daley C, Gordin F, Holland SM, Horsburgh R, Huitt G, Iademarco MF, Iseman M, Olivier K, Ruoss S, von Reyn CF, Wallace RJ, Winthrop K, ATS Mycobacterial Diseases Subcommittee; American Thoracic Society; Infectious Disease Society of America: An official ATS/IDSA statement: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007, 175: 367-416. 10.1164/rccm.200604-571ST.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Mather C, Rivera S, Butler-Wu S: Comparison of the Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization – time of flight mass spectrometry systems for identification of mycobacteria using simplified protein extraction protocols. J Clin Microbiol. 2014, 51: 130-138.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  5. Adékambi T, Colson P, Drancourt M: rpoB-based identification of nonpigmented and late-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria. J Clin Microbiol. 2003, 41: 5699-5708. 10.1128/JCM.41.12.5699-5708.2003.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Méditerranée Infection Foundation URMS Database. [http://www.mediterranee-infection.com/article.php?laref=256%26titre=urms-database]
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Disseminated infection with simiae-avium group mycobacteria in persons with AIDS – Thailand and Malawi, 1997. Morbid Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002, 51: 501-502.Google Scholar
  8. Cruz AT, Goytia VK, Starke JR: Mycobacterium simiae complex infection in an immunocompetent child. J Clin Microbiol. 2007, 45: 2745-2746. 10.1128/JCM.00359-07.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Tan CK, Kao CL, Shih JY, Lee LN, Hung CC, Lai CC, Huang YT, Hsueh PR: Coinfection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and pandemic H1N1 influenza in a patient with lung cancer. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2011, 44: 316-318. 10.1016/j.jmii.2010.03.001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Redford PS, Mayer-Barber KD, McNab FW, Stavropoulos E, Wack A, Sher A, O’Garra A: Influenza A virus impairs control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis coinfection through a type I interferon receptor-dependent pathway. J Infect Dis. 2014, 209: 270-274. 10.1093/infdis/jit424.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© Phelippeau et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2014

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Advertisement