- Case report
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
An unusual origin of the double left testicular artery in a male cadaver: a case report
© Filipovic et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
- Received: 3 May 2012
- Accepted: 21 June 2012
- Published: 31 August 2012
Variations in the number and course of the testicular arteries, often coexisting with variations of the other branches arising from the abdominal aorta, are still reported to be of interest to urology surgeons.
During a routine dissection course, an unusual origin of the double left testicular artery was observed in the cadaver of a 68-year-old Caucasian man who donated his body to the Institute of Anatomy.
A deeper understanding of the variations of the testicular arteries is necessary for all physicians whose practice is related to the testicles and their vascular stalk.
- Renal Artery
- Undescended Testis
- Common Trunk
- Medial Artery
- Accessory Renal Artery
The testicular arteries are known to originate from the ventrolateral aspect of the abdominal aorta and descend obliquely to the pelvic cavity. Variations in the number and course of the testicular arteries, often coexisting with variations of the other branches arising from the abdominal aorta, are reported to be less frequent than the variations of the homologous veins [1, 2]. The developmentally-based variation of origin dealt mostly with the debranching from the renal artery, either main or accessory [3–7]. Although other anatomical peculiarities were related to the same cadaver, such as an early division of the right axillary artery, the presence of the axillary arch on the right side, and the evidence of the accessory renal artery of the same side of the double testicular artery, our aim was to describe, according to the literature, the rarest of the evidenced anatomical variations.
We present a case of double left testicular artery in which one branch originated from the left renal accessory artery and the other branch arose from the common trunk with the left inferior suprarenal artery. The special feature of this case is that the testicular artery on the left side is double, and none of the two arterial vessels arose from the abdominal aorta. Yet cases concerning the origin of the double left testicular artery from the common trunk with the superior adrenal and the inferior mesenteric artery have been presented . The prevalence of variations upon gonadal arteries was reported to be 16 out of 180 specimens obtained from human fetuses and to be more frequent in men than in women . The variations of the testicular artery could be divided in two groups: (a) variations in the branching level, regarding the vertebral column, or arising locus of the renal arteries (above or below the branching level of the renal arteries)  and (b) variation in number, origin, and course; this variation appeared to be more frequent on the right side [9, 10]. Also, common origin with the inferior suprarenal artery has been reported [1, 8]. Testicular arteries were documented to rise from lumbar, renal, accessory renal, middle, and, occasionally, superior suprarenal arteries [4, 7, 11]. In a recent case presentation, Paraskevas et al.  (2011) described a high origin (above the expected level of branching) of the left testicular artery in a common trunk with the inferior phrenic artery. The bilateral branching of the ovarian arteries from the accessory renal arteries has also been revealed . Most of the variations, including those described in this paper, have their roots in the embryology of the testes and the contemporaneous blood supply of each phase of development: mesonephros itself was described to have irrigation from nine mesonephric arteries: superior or cranial, middle, and inferior or caudal (three in each group). The caudal group gives rise to the testicular arteries, whereas the middle forms renal arterial vessels . In our case, both vessels on the left side seemed to originate from the middle group. Double testicular arteries have been obtained in two out of 32 overlooked specimens of human fetuses , and both of the testes had an abdominal localization. Whether the arteries supplying undescended testes have variations in number and origin remains unclear, although a different anastomotic network is present in the undescended testicles . A deeper understanding of these variations and their special relationships to adjacent vessels is especially significant in avoiding sometimes serious complications in clinical operation and other procedures, such as the Fowler-Stephens technique , and in recognizing the causes of genital disorders, such as cryptorchidism, and their adequate treatment in order to preserve the functionality of the undescended testis.
Although many kinds of variations of the origin, direction, and pattern of the testicular arteries have been described, this is a rare case of double testicular artery on the left side. Neither of the two branches originated from the abdominal aorta but from the left inferior suprarenal artery and from the left renal artery. The awareness of such variation is important for all surgeons whose interest is related to the testicular blood vessels or, generally, blood vessels of the retroperitoneum.
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient’s next of kin for publication of this manuscript and accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.
We dedicate this article to the memory of our late professor and teacher, Sava Perovic, member of the Serbian Academy of Science and Arts.
- Asala S, Chaudhary SC, Masumbuko-Kahamba N, Bidmos M: Anatomical variations in the human testicular blood vessels. Ann Anat. 2001, 183: 545-10.1016/S0940-9602(01)80064-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Deepthinath R, Satheesha Nayak B, Mehta RB, Bhat S, Rodrigues V, Samuel VP, Venkataramana V, Prasad AM: Multiple variations in the paired arteries of the abdominal aorta. Clin Anat. 2006, 19: 566-568. 10.1002/ca.20207.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xue HG, Yang CY, Ishida S, Ishizaka K, Ishihara A, Ishida A, Tanuma K: Duplicate testicular veins accompanied by anomalies of the testicular arteries. Ann Anat. 2005, 187: 393-398. 10.1016/j.aanat.2005.04.007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bordei P, Sapte E, Iliescu D: Double renal arteries originating from the aorta. Surg Radiol Anat. 2004, 26: 474-479. 10.1007/s00276-004-0272-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Loukas M, Aparicio S, Beck A, Calderon R, Kennedy M: Rare case of right accessory renal artery originating as a common trunk with the inferior mesenteric artery: a case report. Clin Anat. 2005, 18: 530-535. 10.1002/ca.20194.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Singh G, Ng YK, Bay BH: Bilateral accessory renal arteries associated with some anomalies of the ovarian arteries: a case study. Clin Anat. 1998, 11: 417-420. 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2353(1998)11:6<417::AID-CA8>3.0.CO;2-L.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yalçin B, Komesli GH, Ozkok Y, Ozan H: Vascular anatomy of the normal and undescended testes: surgical assessment of the anastomotic channels between testicular and deferential arteries. Urology. 2005, 66: 854-857. 10.1016/j.urology.2005.04.038.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jyothsna P, Mohandas Rao G, Somayaji SN, Ashwini LS: Multiple vascular anomalies including testicular, suprarenal arteries and lumbar vein. North Am J Med Sci. 2012, 4: 154-156. 10.4103/1947-2714.93880.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Felix W: Manual of Human Embryology, Volume 2. Edited by: Keibel F, Mall FP. 1912, Lippincott, Philadelphia, London, 820-825.Google Scholar
- Siniluoto TM, Hellstrom PA, Paivansalo MJ, Leinonen AS: Testicular infarction following ethanol embolization of a renal neoplasm. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 1988, 11: 162-164. 10.1007/BF02577110.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sampaio FJ, Favorito LA, Freitas MA, Damiao R, Gouveia E: Arterial supply of the human fetal testis during migration. J Urol. 1998, 161: 1603-1605.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sylvia S, Kakarlapudi SV, Vollala VR, Potu BK, Jetti R, Bolla SR, Rao M, Pamidi N: Bilateral variant testicular arteries with double renal arteries. Cases J. 2009, 2: 114-10.1186/1757-1626-2-114.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Paraskevas GK, Ioannidis O, Raikos A, Papaziogas B, Natsis K, Spyridakis I, Kitsoulis P: High origin of a testicular artery: a case report and review of the literature. J Med Case Reports. 2011, 5: 75-10.1186/1752-1947-5-75.View ArticlePubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Ciçekcibaşi AE, Salbacak A, Seker M, Ziylan T, Büyükmumcu M, Uysal II: The origin of gonadal arteries in human fetuses: anatomical variations. Ann Anat. 2002, 184: 275-279. 10.1016/S0940-9602(02)80126-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Petru B, Elena S, Dan I, Constantin D: The morphology and the surgical importance of the gonadal arteries originating from the renal artery. Surg Radiol Anat. 2007, 29: 367-371. 10.1007/s00276-007-0224-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Acar HI, Yazar F, Ozan H: Unusual origin and course of the testicular arteries. Surg Radiol Anat. 2007, 29: 601-603. 10.1007/s00276-007-0232-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.