Papillary renal cell carcinoma with metastatic laparoscopic port site and vaginal involvement: a case report
© Chuang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Received: 21 December 2009
Accepted: 1 April 2011
Published: 1 April 2011
Laparoscopic port-site metastasis is a rare but well recognized outcome following surgery in urological cancers, with its etiology not clearly understood. Additionally, vaginal metastasis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma is rare, and has not been previously reported in the setting of papillary renal cell carcinoma.
We present the case of a 71-year-old Chinese woman with metastatic type II papillary renal cell carcinoma with histologically verified vaginal involvement and a concurrent laparoscopic port-site metastasis. This was also associated with a unique constellation of widely disseminated metastatic sites, which include a local relapse, the peritoneum and the urethra.
Laparoscopic port-site metastases are associated with the presence of advanced cancer with multiple sites of metastasis. We hypothesize from the findings of our report and background data that this phenomenon is more likely to be related to tumor factors rather than operative factors. We also present what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported case in the literature of vaginal and urethral metastasis and the second reported case of laparoscopic port-site recurrence.
Renal cell carcinoma is well known for its ability to metastasize widely to nearly every organ in the body. While vaginal metastases are very rare, with the mode of spread still currently obscure, it is critical to differentiate these metastases from primary vaginal carcinomas, which are rare and constitute approximately 2% of all malignant neoplasms of the female genital tract . To date, all renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastases to the vagina have been reported to be of the clear cell subtype. Additionally, up to September 2007, there were only 28 cases of port-site metastases involving urological malignancies reported. The etiology of port-site metastases has not been clearly established, though it appears to be multi-factorial .
Approximately 80 cases of vaginal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma have been reported to date, with indeterminate prognostic implications from conflicting case reports. After undergoing treatment, mostly in the form of nephrectomy and excision of the vagina lesion, some patients continue to live with no evidence of the disease, whereas others show rapid deterioration. Our report represents the first case of papillary RCC metastasizing to the vagina, with the second such report of a concurrent laparoscopic port-site metastasis. This case is highlighted because the patterns of metastasis for clear cell renal cell carcinoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma are recognized as being different . Rare and unexpected sites of metastases in RCC are usually associated with the clear cell subtype.
Although immunohistochemical studies have suggested a common cellular origin for clear cell RCC and papillary RCC, there are distinct underlying genetic differences. Inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene occurs in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma in both the germline and somatic settings , whereas the underlying pathways that drive papillary RCC, particularly in the somatic setting, are less established. Reports indicating the identification of a familial cancer syndrome including type II papillary RCC from an underlying germline mutation in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene and different activation patterns of cell cycle pathways between type I and type II papillary RCC have led to the role of metabolic signaling to be examined .
An anatomical explanation for vaginal metastasis has been advanced, supporting a predominant left-sided renal origin . Consistent with the concept of retrograde venous spread as a mechanism of vaginal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma, retrograde flow of contrast medium from the left renal vein to the left ovarian vein, followed by filling of the ovarian and vaginal plexus has been demonstrated in patients with renal cell carcinoma . Our case had a right-sided renal origin, but there was naturally widespread involvement of the systemic circulation including the lungs, which may account for this metastasis pattern.
Several hypotheses have been advanced to account for port-site metastasis, which is a recognized phenomenon [8–10], including contamination during laparoscopic surgery via surgical apparatus stained with exfoliated tumor cells, pneumoperitoneum or preferential growth of tumor cells at sites of high cellular proliferation during wound healing at the port site . It is recognized that although port-site metastasis are rare, they normally occur in the presence of advanced disease . Given that the single previous report of a port-site metastasis in type 2 papillary RCC had a similar profile of metastatic sites involving the peritoneum and liver in addition to the port site , our case report provides minor support for the hypothesis that port-site metastasis is related to tumor factors rather than operative factors.
In summary, we report the first case of papillary renal cell carcinoma with metastasis to the vagina, with the second such report of a laparoscopic port-side metastasis. Our case report documenting a second port-site metastasis in a rare tumor provides support for the hypothesis that port-site metastases are related to tumor factors, and not operative factors.
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient's next-of-kin for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.
- Marchal F, Leroux A, Hoffstetter S, Granger P: Vaginal metastasis revealing colon adenocarcinoma. Int J Colorect Dis. 2006, 21: 861-862. 10.1007/s00384-004-0734-x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Eng MK, Katz MH, Bernstein AJ, Shikanov S, Shalhav AL, Zorn KC: Laparoscopic port-site metastasis in urologic surgery. J Endourol. 2008, 22: 1581-1586. 10.1089/end.2008.0329.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mai KT, Landry DC, Robertson SJ, Commons AS, Burns BF, Thijssen A, Collins J: A comparative study of metastatic renal cell carcinoma with correlation to subtype and primary tumor. Pathol Res Pract. 2001, 197: 671-675. 10.1078/0344-0338-00144.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maher ER: Von Hippel-Lindau disease. Curr Mol Med. 2004, 4: 833-842. 10.2174/1566524043359827.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yang XJ, Tan MH, Kim HL, Ditlev JA, Betten MW, Png CE, Kort EJ, Futami K, Furge KA, Takahashi M, Kanayama HO, Tan PH, Teh BS, Luan C, Wang K, Pins M, Tretiakova M, Anema J, Kahnoski R, Nicol T, Stadler W, Vogelzang NG, Amato R, Seligson D, Figlin R, Belldegrun A, Rogers CG, Teh BT: A molecular classification of papillary renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2005, 65: 5628-5637. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-0533.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Milathianakis CN, Karamanolakis DK, Massoud WA, Roumier X, Bogdanos IM, Perrin P: Vaginal metastases from renal cell carcinoma [in French]. Prog Urol. 2005, 15: 319-321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mulcahy JJ, Furlow WL: Vaginal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: radiographic evidence of possible route of spread. J Urol. 1970, 104: 50-52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dorrance HR, Oien K, O'Dwyer PJ: Effects of laparoscopy on intraperitoneal tumor growth and distant metastases in an animal model. Surgery. 1999, 126: 35-40. 10.1067/msy.1999.99056.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tan BJ: Is carbon dioxide insufflation safe for laparoscopic surgery? A model to assess the effects of carbon dioxide on transitional-cell carcinoma growth, apoptosis, and necrosis. J Endourol. 2006, 20: 965-969. 10.1089/end.2006.20.965.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Neuhaus SJ, Watson DI, Ellis T, Rofe AM, Jamieson GG: Influence of cytotoxic agents on intraperitoneal tumor implantation after laparoscopy. Dis Colon Rectum. 1999, 42: 10-15. 10.1007/BF02235176.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Patton MS, Park KG: Laparoscopic port site recurrence in the absence of intra-abdominal disease. JR Coll Surg Edinb. 2001, 46: 184-185.Google Scholar
- Zivanovic O, Sonoda Y, Diaz JP, Levine DA, Brown CL, Chi DS, Barakat RR, Abu-Rustum NR: The rate of port-site metastases after 2251 laparoscopic procedures in underlying malignant disease. Gynecol Oncol. 2008, 111: 431-437. 10.1016/j.ygyno.2008.08.024.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Masterson TA, Russo P: A case of port-site recurrence and locoregional metastasis after laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2008, 5: 345-349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.