- Case report
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
Unilateral optic neuropathy following subdural hematoma: a case report
Journal of Medical Case Reportsvolume 4, Article number: 19 (2010)
Unilateral optic neuropathy is commonly due to a prechiasmatic affliction of the anterior visual pathway, while losses in visual hemifields result from the damage to brain hemispheres. Here we report the unusual case of a patient who suffered from acute optic neuropathy following hemispherical subdural hematoma. Although confirmed up to now only through necropsy studies, our case strongly suggests a local, microcirculatory deficit identified through magnetic resonance imaging in vivo.
A 70-year-old Caucasian German who developed a massive left hemispheric subdural hematoma under oral anticoagulation presented with acute, severe visual impairment on his left eye, which was noticed after surgical decompression. Neurologic and ophthalmologic examinations indicated sinistral optic neuropathy with visual acuity reduced nearly to amaurosis. Ocular pathology such as vitreous body hemorrhage, papilledema, and central retinal artery occlusion were excluded. An orbital lesion was ruled out by means of orbital magnetic resonance imaging. However, cerebral diffusion-weighted imaging and T2 maps of magnetic resonance imaging revealed a circumscribed ischemic lesion within the edematous, slightly herniated temporomesial lobe within the immediate vicinity of the affected optic nerve. Thus, the clinical course and morphologic magnetic resonance imaging findings suggest the occurrence of pressure-induced posterior ischemic optic neuropathy due to microcirculatory compromise.
Although lesions of the second cranial nerve following subdural hematoma have been reported individually, their pathogenesis was preferentially proposed from autopsy studies. Here we discuss a dual, pressure-induced and secondarily ischemic pathomechanism on the base of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging diagnostics which may remain unconsidered by computed tomography.
Unilateral optic neuropathy (ON) following subdural hematoma has been confirmed by necropsy studies. In these studies, microcirculatory compromise of the optic nerve was proven as a pathogenic mechanism . In this case report, diffusion-weighted images (DWI) of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans showed signal alteration in the ipsilateral optic nerve as a strong evidence for the development of microvascular deficit. Thus, our case is in line with results from autopsies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case presentation that demonstrates microvascular impairment with optic neuropathy in vivo.
A 70-year-old Caucasian man of German nationality receiving warfarin therapy for the primary prevention of chronic atrial fibrillation was admitted to our hospital due to symptoms of a coronary syndrome. An initial international normalized ratio (INR) of 1.7 was elevated to therapeutic ranges (INR = 2.5). Three days later, the patient was found comatose after a first-ever generalized seizure. Cerebral computed tomography (CT) revealed a subdural hematoma measuring 16 mm at its maximum thickness and covering almost the entire left convexity which caused a massive midline shift (Figure 1A). Rapid cerebral MRI of the same day depicted a beginning ipsilateral uncal herniation towards the chiasmatic cistern (Figure 1B). Immediately after INR normalisation, surgical evacuation of the subdural hematoma and decompressive craniectomy were performed without any complications.
Two days after extubation and recovery from anaesthesia, the patient complained of severe sinistral visual loss. Neurologic and ophthalmologic examinations confirmed a severely reduced visual acuity on his left eye with concomitant afferent pupillary defect. A normal vascular fundoscopy and the lack of papilledema led to the working diagnosis of posterior ON. Four days after the surgery, a follow-up DWI of the cerebral MRI (Figure 1C) showed a signal hyperintense lesion within the left lateral, mesiobasal temporal lobe that was immediately adjacent to the distal prechiasmatic course of the affected optic nerve. Dull signal attenuation in corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, and gadolinium enhancement in T1 (not shown) led to the diagnosis of a subacute cerebral ischemic event.
The corresponding hyperintensity of T2-weighted images indicated focal brain edema in line with regional hypoperfusion and the preceding uncal shift (Figure 1D). Thus, pathomorphologic and sequence-specific MRI criteria suggest a primary mechanic compression followed by secondary microcirculatory impairment of the afflicted brain area. In support of this hypothesis, DWI alterations were not manifest at the initial MRI diagnostics. Although not directly proven by MRI but due to its close anatomic course and the temporal coincidence of optic nerve affliction, an equal dual pathomechanism was believed to be the cause of the appearance of ON. Further cerebral or orbital pathologies were not apparent (not shown). Within weeks, the patient was released for rehabilitation without further visual improvement.
To date, only a few cases of ON following subdural hematoma are presented, and their pathomorphologic in vivo findings do not at all elucidate its aetiology. Generally, reports do not present the existence of papilledema or of radiologic in vivo evidence of optic nerve compression by mass effects . In contrast, autopsy studies confirm optic nerve necrosis that is remote from space occupying lesions .
The pathophysiology of ON has been discussed in the context of diverse aetiological events, and adequate diagnostic approaches have already been proposed. Table 1 provides an overview of selected publications focussing on key diagnostic means to identify and characterize vascular, mechanical, and pharmacologic aetiologies of ON (Table 1).
At present, only a few cases refer to the diagnostic value of MRI in ON. By means of MRI, unilateral  and simultaneous bilateral  ischemic ON were diagnosed. It was concluded that DWI and ADC maps of MRI may be useful in detecting ischemia of any white matter tracts that are disparate from the brain and spinal cord. MRI diagnostics may even prove suitable in distinguishing ischemic events from optic neuritis , while also providing the opportunity to simultaneously detect anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) and posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION). Likewise, MRI venography in relation to DWI and ADC maps unequivocally confirmed that ON can be caused by cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis .
Using the MRI technique, we now provide a pathophysiologic insight on ON following space occupying subdural hematoma early in vivo. Radiological signs of herniation were discrete, although highly sensitive MRI revealed a mechanic, pressure-induced brain lesion of the mesiobasal temporal lobe in proximity to the affected optic nerve. However, focal ischemic injury was missed in detecting basal brain shift by CT. Since MRI pathologies fulfilled the criteria of ischemic compromise, we suggest that the local increase in intracranial pressure (ICP) exceeded the perfusion pressure of both structures, namely the formation of the uncus and the nearby passing optic nerve. Consistent with this notion of a microcirculatory deficit, the lesion did not follow the characteristic extent of a vascular territory.
We suggest that rare cases of acute ON following subdural hematoma are due to local pressure-induced optic nerve infarction. This pathomechanism may remain neglected when massive brain shift is lacking or when CT is the only diagnostic means. The use of serial MRI may help balance the discrepancy between the paucity of clinical reports and frequent neuropathological findings of anterior visual pathway damage in space-occupying brain injury .
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.
apparent diffusion coefficient
anterior ischemic optic neuropathy
fluid attenuated inverse recovery
international normalized ratio
magnetic resonance imaging
posterior ischemic optic neuropathy.
Lindenberg R, Walsh FB: Vascular compressions involving intracranial visual pathways. Trans Am Acad of Optha Otolaryngol. 1964, 68: 677-694.
Hollander DA, Stewart JM: Anterior pathway vision loss due to subdural haematoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003, 87: 1423-1424. 10.1136/bjo.87.11.1423.
Al-Shafai LS, Mikulis DJ: Diffusion MR imaging in a case of acute ischemic optic neuropathy. Am J Neuroradiol. 2006, 27: 255-257.
Klein JP, Cohen AB, Kimberly WT, Shah AS, Leiderman YI, Cestari DM, Dinkin MJ: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of bilateral simultaneous optic nerve infarctions. Arch Neurol. 2009, 66: 132-133. 10.1001/archneurol.2008.523.
Chen JS, Mukherjee P, Wintermark M: Restricted diffusion in bilateral optic nerves and retinas as an indicator of venous ischemia caused by cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis. Am J Neuroradiol. 2006, 27: 1815-1816.
Alexandridis E, Argyropoulos T, Krastel H: The latent period of the pupil light reflex in lesions of the optic nerve. Ophthalmologica. 1981, 182: 211-217.
Sohn BJ, Chun BY, Kwon JY: The effect of an intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection for acute nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2009, 23: 59-61. 10.3341/kjo.2009.23.1.59.
Frigui M, Kechaou M, Jemal M, Zina ZB, Feki J, Bahloul Z: Les neuropathies optiques au cours de la maladie de Behçet: à propos de 18 cas. Rev Med Interne. 2009, 30: 486-491. 10.1016/j.revmed.2008.12.021.
Langham ME, To'Mey KF: A clinical procedure for the measurements of the ocular pulse-pressure relationship and the ophthalmic arterial pressure. Exp Eye Res. 1978, 27: 17-25. 10.1016/0014-4835(78)90049-0.
Saito H, Tomidokoro A, Sugimoto E, Aihara M, Tomita G, Fujie K, Wakakura M, Araie M: Optic disc tomography and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy and open-angle glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 2006, 113: 1340-1344. 10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.01.072.
Danesh-Meyer HV, Carroll SC, Ku JYF, Hsiang J, Gaskin B, Gamble GG, Savino PJ: Correlation of retinal nerve fiber layer measured by scanning laser polarimeter to visual field in ischemic optic neuropathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006, 124: 1720-1726. 10.1001/archopht.124.12.1720.
Leiba H, Rachmiel R, Harris A, Kagemann L, Pollack A, Zalish M: Optic nerve head blood flow measurements in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Eye. 2000, 14: 828-833.
Ghanchi FD, Williamson TH, lim CS, Butt Z, Baxter GM, McKillop G, O'Brian C: Colour Doppler imaging in giant cell (temporal) arteritis: serial examination and comparison with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Eye. 1996, 10: 459-464.
Mathur S, Karimi A, Mafee MF: Acute optic nerve infarction demonstrated by diffusion-weighted imaging in a case of rhinocerebral mucormycosis. Am J Neuroradiol. 2007, 28: 489-490.
Hayreh SS, Zimmerman MB: Fundus changes in central retinal artery occlusion. Retina. 2007, 27: 276-289. 10.1097/01.iae.0000238095.97104.9b.
Chong CT, Chin KJ, Yip LW, Singh K: Case series: monocular visual loss associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Can J Anesth. 2006, 53: 684-689. 10.1007/BF03021627.
Cestari DM, Metson RB, Cunnane ME, Faquin WC: Case 40-2008: a 26-year-old man with blurred vision. N Engl J Med. 2008, 359: 2825-2833. 10.1056/NEJMcpc0805311.
Rodney AJ, Gombos DS, Pagliaro LC, Tannir NM: Ischemic optic neuropathy associated with low-dose interferon alfa: report of two cases. Am J Clin Oncol. 2009, 32: 86-87. 10.1097/01.coc.0000236211.90803.96.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
AK and CP interpreted the patient data and clinical course regarding the neurological disease. HF, OW and CT were major contributors in conceiving and writing the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Authors’ original submitted files for images
Below are the links to the authors’ original submitted files for images.