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Table 2. Summary of autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis cases reported in children and adolescents

From: Autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis successfully treated with lung lavage in an adolescent patient: a case report

Case Age (years)a Gender Presenting symptoms Chronic diseases Treatment Outcome Country
Latzin et al. [36] 11b M Exertional SOB NR WLL Partially improved France
Price et al. [35] 13 M Mild exertional SOB
Productive cough
FTT
No WLL
Inhaled rhGM-CSF
Improved Canada
Yamamoto et al. [34] 9 F Dry cough No WLL
Inhaled rhGM-CSF
Improved Japan
Robinson et al. [33] 16 F Mild SOB No WLL
Inhaled rhGM-CSF
Improved USA
DiBlasi et al. [32] 13 M SOB
Cough
Fatigue
Weight loss
NR WLL Improved USA
Strickler et al. [31] 13 F SOB
Dry cough
Fever
Exercise intolerance
Fatigue
No WLL Improved Chile
Sideris et al. [30] 6 F NR Niemann–Pick disease WLL
Inhaled rhGM-CSF
Improved USA
Trukalj et al. [29] 10 M Frequent respiratory infections
Cough
No WLL
Inhaled rhGM-CSF
Bilateral lung transplantation
Improved Croatia
Gajewska et al. [28] 14 F Exertional SOB
Cough
No WLL
Inhaled rhGM-CSF
Improved Denmark
Sirin et al. [27] 15 F Exertional SOB No WLL
Inhaled rhGM-CSF
Improved Turkey
Feld et al. [26] 16 F Exertional SOB
Cough
Weight loss
Raynaud syndrome WLL
Inhaled rhGM-CSF
Improved USA
Meka et al. [25] 17 F Exertional SOB
Cough
No WLL NR USA
Shivji et al. [24] 13 F Exertional SOB No WLL Improved Canada
Current report 15 M Exertional SOB
Dry cough
No WLL Improved Saudi Arabia
  1. aAge of patient at onset of symptoms
  2. bDisease onset was at age of 11 years. However, the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was obtained and analyzed at age of 24 years with evidence of elevated level of anti-GM-CSF
  3. F female, FFT failure to thrive, M male, NR not reported, rhGM-CSF recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, SOB shortness of breath, WLL whole lung lavage