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Table 1 Investigations and findings

From: Scrofuloderma with disseminated tuberculosis in an Ethiopian child: a case report

Serial number  Investigations Results or findings
1 Complete blood count WBC 13.9 × 103
Red blood cell count 4.4 × 103
Platelet count 278 × 103
Hematocrit 10 g/dl
2 Urinalysis pH 6
Specific gravity 1.020
Negative for ketone and glucose
WBC 2–5/HPF
Negative for chemical tests (leukocyte esterase, nitrite, urobilinogen, protein)
3 Liver function tests AST/SGOT (aspartate transaminases) 92U/L
SGPT/ALT (alanine aminotransferase) 40U/L
ALP (alkaline phosphatase) 100IU/L
4 Renal function test Creatinine 0.5mg/dl
5 HIV Negative antibody test
4 Erythrocyte sedimentation rate in first hour 65 mm/hr
2 Cerebrospinal fluid analysis 105 cells (65 lymphocytes)
No organism on Gram stain and acid-fast bacilli stain
3 Chest x-ray Right upper and middle lobe ill-defined airspace opacity
4 Skin discharge analysis Gram-positive diplococci in chain on Gram stain, Mycobacterium tuberculosis on Xpert MTB/RIF assay
5 Fine-needle aspiration cytology Only caseous necrosis, no granuloma, and smears from ulcerated lesions show mixed inflammatory cells, predominantly polymorphs
6 Skin biopsy Tuberculous scrofuloderma: with section showing mature squamous cell-lined skin tissue composed of epithelioid cell granuloma, multinucleated giant cells, caseous necrosis, and mixed inflammatory cells
7 Brain computed tomography Multiple precontrast hyperdense randomly distributed supra- and infratentorial lesions with mild perilesional edema. Rim enhancement on postcontrast image (caseating granulomas) on some lesions and solid pattern of enhancement (noncaseating granulomas) evident on others. Dense basal cistern exudate seen on precontrast images with avid postcontrast basal leptomeningeal enhancement. Severe bilateral lateral, third- and fourth-ventricle dilation was noted.
  1. Abbreviations: HIV Human immunodeficiency virus, HPF High-power field, Xpert MTB/RIF Automated real-time nucleic acid amplification technology used for rapid and simultaneous detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance, WBC White blood cell