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Table 1 Causes of granulomatous and/or necrotizing lymphadenitis, with or without suppuration

From: Noncaseating suppurative granulomatous lymphadenitis in adult onset Still’s disease – a diagnostic dilemma in a tuberculosis-endemic region: a case report

Viruses Bacteria Fungal
EBV
CMV
HBV
HCV
HSV adenovirus
HIV
Yersinia, Bartonella
Tropheryma whipplei
Francisella tularensis
Brucella
Spirochaetes
Treponema pallidum
Chlamydia
Lymphogranuloma venereum
Rickettsia
Coxiella burnetii
Mycobacteria
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Atypical mycobacterial
infection
Mycobacterium leprae
Histoplasmosis
Aspergillosis
Coccidioidomycosis
Cryptococcosis
Parasite Neoplastic Autoimmune
Toxoplasmosis
Leishmaniasis
Hodgkin disease
Non-Hodgkin disease, metastatic carcinoma
Langerhans cell histiocytosis Seminoma
Dysgerminoma
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis Churg–Strauss syndrome
Celiac disease, Crohn’s disease
Primary biliary cirrhosis, Kawasaki disease
Autoinflammatory and idiopathic
Necrotic sarcoid granulomatosis
Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease
Familial Mediterranean fever
Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome
PFAPA syndrome
  1. CMV cytomegalovirus, EBV Epstein–Barr virus, HBV hepatitis B virus, HCV hepatitis C virus, HSV herpes simplex virus, PFAPA periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis