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Table 2 Summary of perimysial/endomysial expression pattern of applied immunohistochemical markers in assessed myocardial and skeletal muscle tissue samples

From: Fulminant systemic capillary leak syndrome due to C1 inhibitor deficiency complicating acute dermatomyositis: a case report

Applied marker Myocardial muscle Skeletal muscle
CD3 + + / + + / –
CD4 + + / + + / –
CD8 + / – – / –
CD20 – / – – / –
CD25 – / – – / –
CD38 + / – – / –
CD56 + / – – / –
CD79a 0 / 0 0 / 0
T-cell intracellular antigen-1 + / + 0 / –
  1. Legend to symbols: ++ = high expression, + = moderate expression, 0 = sporadic expression,  = no expression.
  2. Legend to Table 2: Immunohistochemical expression pattern of lymphocytic specific markers revealed more frequent expression of CD3 in myocardial than in skeletal muscle tissue. In addition, within the CD3 positive T-cells CD4 positive cells were higher expressed than CD8 positive cells indicating a majority of the T-cell-helper-phenotype (CD4+) than of the T-cell-regulatory-phenotype (CD8+). This was supported by the perimysial expression of CD38 – a marker for activated CD4+-T-cells; and the lack of CD25 – a marker for activated CD8+-T-cells. Finally, evidence for an activated innate immune system was provided by the specific expression of CD56 and T-cell intracellular antigen (specific marker for a subpopulation of natural killer cells). Overall, immunohistochemical expression analysis revealed a myocardial-associated lymphatic-disordered status in dermatomyositis.