Pulmonary function test. The pulmonary function test was performed pre-operatively; no spirometric improvement was noted after the administration of pre- and post-bronchodilator therapy. There was scooping and concavity of the expiratory part of the flow-volume curve (arrow), which indicates obstructive airway disease. Spirometry revealed a moderate-to-severe reduction in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at 1 minute, forced expiratory volume 25% to 75%, and total lung capacity. There was evidence of hyperinflation and airway trapping from the increase in functional residual capacity, residual volume and airway resistance.