Successful pregnancy outcome after laparoscopic-assisted excision of a bizarre leiomyoma: a case report
© Takeda et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Received: 24 February 2011
Accepted: 3 August 2011
Published: 3 August 2011
Bizarre leiomyoma is a rare leiomyoma variant that requires a precise histopathological evaluation. Especially when diagnosed in a younger woman, this tumor leads to challenging treatment issues involving fertility preservation. Owing to the low incidence of bizarre leiomyoma, there is insufficient evidence to support myomectomy alone as an appropriate management option. Also, the impact of bizarre leiomyoma on fertility is not well known.
A 30-year-old Japanese woman who had never given birth was referred to us because of a uterine tumor with an unusual diagnostic image and was treated by a gasless laparoscopic-assisted excision with a wound retractor. Owing to an unclear margin between her uterine tumor and myometrium, a concomitant excision of adjacent myometrial tissue was required to achieve the maximum resection of her tumor. The histopathological diagnosis was bizarre leiomyoma. Seven months later, she conceived spontaneously and her pregnancy course was uneventful. At 37 weeks of gestation, an elective cesarean section was performed. Although a slight omental adhesion was noted at the postexcisional scar, her uterine wall structure was well preserved and a recurrence of bizarre leiomyoma was not noted.
A laparoscopic-assisted excision of bizarre leiomyoma is a feasible and minimally invasive conservative measure for a woman who wishes to preserve fertility.
Smooth muscle tumors of the uterus encompass a variety of benign and malignant neoplasms . Among uterine smooth muscle tumors, leiomyoma is the most common benign neoplasm in women of reproductive age . Although most leiomyomas usually do not present a diagnostic problem, subtypes of leiomyoma mimic malignancy in one or more aspects and so are of great interest . Because of the rapidly growing availability of a more conservative set of measures for women who have benign uterine pathology and want to preserve fertility, differentiating benign from malignant uterine smooth muscle tumors is becoming increasingly important when a treatment strategy is planned [1, 4].
Bizarre leiomyoma, also referred to as atypical, pleomorphic, or symplastic leiomyoma, is one of a group of rare leiomyoma variants that require precise histopathological evaluation so that they are not misinterpreted as leiomyosarcomas [5, 6]. Although the pathology of this morphologic variant is well established [3, 5], preoperative diagnostic image findings of bizarre leiomyoma have not been described.
If fertility preservation is not required, the standard surgical intervention for bizarre leiomyoma that shows a benign clinical course is a simple hysterectomy [1, 5, 6]. However, owing to the low incidence of bizarre leiomyoma, there is insufficient evidence to support myomectomy alone as an appropriate management option [1, 6]. Also, the impact of bizarre leiomyoma on fertility is not well known. In this report, preoperative diagnostic image characteristics and minimally invasive conservative management of bizarre leiomyoma by a laparoscopic-assisted excision that resulted in a successful pregnancy outcome in a woman who had never given birth are described.
We informed our patient of the potential risk of hysterectomy if a conservative excision for a uterine tumor with an unusual appearance (indicating a possible malignancy) was unsuccessful. She declined surgery at that time out of a fear of losing her fertility and chose instead to have her disease condition observed by ultrasonography at periodic check-ups. Since natural conception did not occur and the tumor gradually enlarged to a maximum diameter of 59 mm and the number of cystic structures increased six months later (Figure 1B, arrow), she hoped for a resection of the uterine tumor.
A gasless laparoscopic-assisted excision with an Alexis wound retractor (Applied Medical, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA, USA) was performed under general anesthesia in accordance with a previous description of the procedure [8, 9]. The length of the suprapubic transverse incision made with the wound retractor was 2.5 cm. A hysterotomy was performed with a Harmonic scalpel (Ethicon Japan, Tokyo, Japan) after a local myometrial injection of dilute vasopressin (Pitressin; Parke-Davis, Morris Plains, NJ, USA).
First, endometrial defect was closed with Vicryl Rapide sutures (Ethicon Japan). Then, the myometrial defect was reapproximated by two-layered closure with Coated Vicryl sutures (Ethicon Japan) (Figure 2D). There were no difficulties in achieving hemostasis, and the surgical procedures were completed as usual. After hemostasis was obtained, a fibrin glue-coated collagen patch (TachoComb; CSL Behring, Tokyo, Japan) was applied over the hysterotomy site through the suprapubic port to achieve further completion of hemostasis and minimize adhesion formation . A J-Vac drain (Ethicon Japan) was placed in the pelvic cavity and was removed the next day after hemostasis was confirmed. Surgery lasted 82 minutes, and the loss of blood was less than 50 mL. The excised tissue weighed 20 g. The postoperative course was uneventful.
Smooth muscle tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the uterus . Although the majority of uterine smooth muscle tumors are readily classifiable as benign or malignant (on the basis of their gross and microscopic appearances ), morphologic variants of leiomyoma are easily misinterpreted histologically as a malignancy [3, 5, 6].
Bizarre leiomyoma is one such rare leiomyoma variant that requires extensive sampling by the pathologist for a differential diagnosis from leiomyosarcoma , especially when the tumor is diagnosed in a younger woman, a circumstance that leads to challenging treatment issues involving fertility preservation . Bizarre leiomyoma can be differentiated from leiomyosarcoma by a lack of necrotizing tumor cells and lower mitotic activity . In the present case, although the initial histopathological examination suggested the malignant nature of the tumor by the presence of atypical characteristics of tumor cells, the low mitotic activity rate of the tumor cells as assessed by MIB-1 labeling index  gave the final pathological diagnosis of bizarre leiomyoma.
Extensive research for a pathological-radiological correlation to enhance the ability to diagnose and manage uterine smooth muscle tumors has been continued [4, 7, 10]. Typical appearances of uterine leiomyoma on MRI images are well established, and diagnosis is usually easy [4, 10]. However, diagnostic image characteristics used to reach the precise preoperative diagnosis are unknown for such a rare but clinically problematic tumor as bizarre leiomyoma.
In the present case of bizarre leiomyoma, ultrasonography showed an unusual appearance and multiple low-echoic cystic structures within the tumor. A signal intensity that was mostly higher inside the tumor than in the surrounding myometrium on T2-weighted MRI images was another characteristic diagnostic image feature of the present case. When a surgical strategy is planned, a combination of these diagnostic image findings is the potentially important clue to narrow the preoperative diagnosis of this unusual variant of leiomyoma in a woman who wishes to preserve fertility.
If fertility preservation is not a major concern, a simple hysterectomy performed either initially or secondarily after the diagnosis of bizarre leiomyoma in a specimen obtained from myomectomy is a definitive curative treatment for bizarre leiomyoma that shows a benign clinical course [1, 5, 6]. However, owing to the rarity of bizarre leiomyoma, sufficient evidence to support a myomectomy for a woman who wishes to preserve fertility does not exist [1, 6].
In the present case, it was assumed that bizarre leiomyoma deforming the uterine cavity was the significant cause of infertility since spontaneous conception occurred early after the operation. Although the present report suggests that conservative excision of bizarre leiomyoma could be an effective measure for a woman who wishes to preserve fertility, difficult identification of the dissecting plane because of an unclear border between the tumor and the adjacent myometrium during myomectomy should be cautioned before considering a conservative surgical intervention. Insufficient resection may cause early tumor recurrence; however, over-resection of adjacent myometrium is associated with a potentially dangerous defect of the uterine wall and may lead to uterine rupture during a subsequent pregnancy.
Reports by Sesti and colleagues [11–13] indicated that an isobaric gasless laparoscopic myomectomy using the LaparoTenser device (Lucini Surgical Concept srl, Milan, Italy) is a useful and minimally invasive measure for the management of patients who have myoma and wish to preserve fertility. In the present case of bizarre leiomyoma, a gasless laparoscopic-assisted myomectomy with a wound retractor [8, 9] that was developed by us was quite useful. Even though the dissecting plane was difficult to identify because of an unclear border, the decision of appropriate dissecting margin became easy by direct palpation of the excisional area by a surgeon's index finger through the wound retractor. The reliability and safety of this procedure were confirmed by the uncomplicated pregnancy outcome in the present case.
Laparoscopic-assisted excision of bizarre leiomyoma is a useful and minimally invasive conservative measure for a woman who wishes to preserve fertility, although close follow-up for an extended period of time by periodic ultrasonography for a possible recurrence is warranted. Additional conservatively managed cases with bizarre leiomyoma are required to confirm the safety and reliability of the enucleation procedure and to enable counseling of future patients who wish to preserve fertility.
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.
magnetic resonance imaging.
- Solomon LA, Schimp VL, Ali-Fehmi R, Diamond MP, Munkarah AR: Clinical update of smooth muscle tumors of the uterus. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2005, 12: 401-408. 10.1016/j.jmig.2005.05.022.View ArticlePubMed
- Buttram VC, Reiter RC: Uterine leiomyomata: etiology, symptomatology, and management. Fertil Steril. 1981, 36: 433-445.PubMed
- Toledo G, Oliva E: Smooth muscle tumors of the uterus: a practical approach. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008, 132: 595-605.PubMed
- Schwartz LB, Zawin M, Carcangiu ML, Lange R, McCarthy S: Does pelvic magnetic resonance imaging differentiate among the histologic subtypes of uterine leiomyomata?. Fertil Steril. 1998, 70: 580-587. 10.1016/S0015-0282(98)00193-9.View ArticlePubMed
- Downes KA, Hart WR: Bizarre leiomyomas of the uterus: a comprehensive pathologic study of 24 cases with long-term follow-up. Am J Surg Pathol. 1997, 21: 1261-1270. 10.1097/00000478-199711000-00001.View ArticlePubMed
- Sung CO, Ahn G, Song SY, Choi YL, Bae DS: Atypical leiomyomas of the uterus with long-term follow-up after myomectomy with immunohistochemical analysis for p16INK4A, p53, Ki-67, estrogen receptors, and progesterone receptors. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2009, 28: 529-534. 10.1097/PGP.0b013e3181a2b8d3.View ArticlePubMed
- Yamashita Y, Torashima M, Takahashi M, Tanaka N, Katabuchi H, Miyazaki K, Ito M, Okamura H: Hyperintense uterine leiomyoma at T2-weighted MR imaging: differentiation with dynamic enhanced MR imaging and clinical implications. Radiology. 1993, 189: 721-725.View ArticlePubMed
- Takeda A, Sakai K, Mitsui T, Nakamura H: Wound retraction system for gasless laparoscopic-assisted myomectomy with a subcutaneous abdominal wall-lift method. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2007, 14: 240-246. 10.1016/j.jmig.2006.07.018.View ArticlePubMed
- Takeda A, Koyama K, Imoto S, Mori M, Sakai K, Nakamura H: Temporary endovascular balloon occlusion of the bilateral internal iliac arteries for control of hemorrhage during laparoscopic-assisted myomectomy in a nulligravida with a large cervical myoma. Fertil Steril. 2009, 91: 935.e5-9. 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.09.040.View Article
- Vitiello D, McCarthy S: Diagnostic imaging of myomas. Obstet Gynecol Clin N Am. 2006, 33: 85-95. 10.1016/j.ogc.2005.12.013.View Article
- Melgrati L, Damiani A, Franzoni G, Marziali M, Sesti F: Isobaric (gasless) laparoscopic myomectomy during pregnancy. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2005, 12: 379-381. 10.1016/j.jmig.2005.05.012.View ArticlePubMed
- Damiani A, Melgrati L, Franzoni G, Stepanyan M, Bonifacio S, Sesti F: Isobaric gasless laparoscopic myomectomy for removal of large uterine leiomyomas. Surg Endosc. 2006, 20: 1406-1409. 10.1007/s00464-004-9078-4.View ArticlePubMed
- Sesti F, Capobianco F, Capozzolo T, Pietropolli A, Piccione E: Isobaric gasless laparoscopy versus minilaparotomy in uterine myomectomy: a randomized trial. Surg Endosc. 2008, 22: 917-923. 10.1007/s00464-007-9516-1.View ArticlePubMed
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.