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  1. Thyroid storm is an endocrine emergency and life-threatening condition discovered in 1926. There is no specific laboratory parameter that can differentiate or distinguish between thyroid storm and primary hype...

    Authors: Muhammad Saleem, Sher M. Sethi, Abrar Ali and Zareen Kiran
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:519
  2. While commonly utilized to fix tissue and muscles to megaprostheses to restore function and stability after tumor surgery, an attachment tube was used as a synthetic reconstruction of the knee joint’s extensio...

    Authors: Alena Richter, Henning Windhagen and Max Ettinger
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:534
  3. Diabetic papillopathy is a rare diagnosis of exclusion characterized by unilateral or bilateral optic disc edema with variable degrees of visual loss. Although the visual prognosis has been generally reported ...

    Authors: Ilir Arapi, Piergiorgio Neri, Alfonso Giovannini and Arjeta Grezda
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:518
  4. We report here a case of a healthy 23-year-old female patient who was assessed at the gynecology emergency department for genital ulcers, fever, and blurred vision. After suspicion of herpes simplex virus-2 le...

    Authors: S. Masmejan, Y. Guex-Crosier, C. Diserens, M. Vouga, A. S. Clottu, C. Ribi, P. Mathevet and M. Jacot-Guillarmod
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:517
  5. With early diagnosis, fiberoptic or rigid bronchoscopy methods are the gold standard in the management of tracheobronchial foreign body. Otherwise, nonrecognized bronchial foreign bodies cause irreversible dam...

    Authors: Narindra N. M. Razafimanjato, Rindra A. Ralaivao, Tsiry D. N. Ravelomihary, Francis A. Hunald and Jean Louis H. Rakotovao
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:533
  6. Vertebral artery dissection is an uncommon, but potentially fatal, vascular event. This case aimed to describe the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of vertebral artery dissection in a term pregnant patie...

    Authors: Francesca Monari, Stefano Busani, Maria Giovanna Imbrogno, Isabella Neri, Massimo Girardis, Annamaria Ghirardini, Francesca Cavalleri and Fabio Facchinetti
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:530
  7. Giant cell arteritis has a wide variety of clinical symptoms, one of them being cervical radiculopathy, which mainly involves the C5 nerve root. If the patient does not develop typical clinical symptoms of gia...

    Authors: Akihiko Nakabayashi, Hiroki Ikai and Yoshinori Katada
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:527
  8. Cerebellar degeneration is a rare and severe presentation of primary Sjögren syndrome. There are few case reports of cerebellar degeneration associated with different autoimmune diseases, especially with syste...

    Authors: Seow Lin Chuah, Ahmad Tirmizi Jobli, Sharifah Aishah Wan and Cheng Lay Teh
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:526
  9. Autoimmune hepatitis–primary sclerosing cholangitis overlap syndrome is a form of autoimmune hepatitis with cholestatic features and is characterized by negative anti-mitochondrial antibody and cholangiographi...

    Authors: Behzad Hatami, Hamide Rahmani Seraji and Mohaddese fallahi
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:524
  10. Uveal effusion syndrome is a rare disease characterized by exudative detachments of the choroid, ciliary body, and retina. Various surgical procedures and nonsurgical strategies have been described to treat uv...

    Authors: Li Song, Fangtian Dong and Changxian Yi
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:515
  11. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an effective cardiopulmonary support therapy, which can provide temporary cardiopulmonary support for critically ill patients whose condition cannot be reversed by...

    Authors: YouLian Chen, HuaiSheng Chen, XueYan Liu, ChengYing Hong and HuaDong Zhang
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:529
  12. Desmoplastic fibroblastoma (also known as collagenous fibroma) is a benign, slowly growing soft-tissue tumor. Most desmoplastic fibroblastomas develop in the limbs, neck, or trunk. A mediastinal origin is quit...

    Authors: Tai Hato, Hiroaki Kashimada, Masatoshi Yamaguchi, Ato Sugiyama, Yoshiaki Inoue, Kohei Aoki, Hiroki Fukuda, Masatoshi Gika, Jun Kikuchi, Takashi Fujino, Takehiko Yamaguchi, Jun-ichi Tamaru, Mitsutomo Kohno and Mitsuo Nakayama
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:525
  13. Plantaris tendinopathy and plantaris-associated Achilles tendinopathy can be responsible for chronic pain in the Achilles tendon midportion, often accompanied by medial tenderness. As conservative treatments a...

    Authors: Håkan Alfredson, Lorenzo Masci and Christoph Spang
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:513
  14. Basal cell carcinoma is the most common nonmelanotic skin cancer. It has variable clinical and histological subtypes that vary in their aggressiveness and liability to recurrence and metastasis. Chronic ultrav...

    Authors: Mohammad Younes, Lamia Kouba, Hanaa Almsokar and Ayham Badran
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:512
  15. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are new immunotherapy drugs globally used for many malignancies, including renal cell carcinoma. Myocarditis as an immune-related adverse event is rare but highly fatal, suggesting...

    Authors: Yasuyuki Miyauchi, Hirohito Naito, Hiroyuki Tsunemori, Ryosuke Tani, Yusuke Hasui, Yuichi Miyake, Tetsuo Minamino, Ryo Ishikawa, Yoshio Kushida, Reiji Haba and Mikio Sugimoto
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:508
  16. Meningiomas are the most commonly encountered intracranial tumors, usually showing indolent behavior. Extra-axial spreading and distant metastases are seldom detected in these tumors, and lung metastasis from ...

    Authors: Parviz Mardani, Arash Safarian, Anita Ashari, Sarina Pourjafar, Mohammad Hossein Anbardar, Negar Azarpira, Masoud Vafabin and Shahaboddin Yousefi
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:509
  17. Intracranial arachnoid cysts are common, cerebrospinal fluid-filled, innocent lesions that are usually detected incidentally on brain imaging. They may rupture and complicate due to subdural hematoma or hygrom...

    Authors: Mohammad Farouq Hamidi and Hidayatullah Hamidi
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:511
  18. Desmoplastic small round cell tumor is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis, affecting young male patients. It frequently presents as a large abdominal mass with widespread peritoneal involvement at diagnosis...

    Authors: S. Slim, I. Zemni, A. Bouida, M. Bouhani, N. Boujelbene, K. Mrad, R. Chargui and K. Rahal
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:500
  19. Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion syndrome occurs in 10% of all patients with adrenocorticotropic-hormone-dependent hypercortisolism. It is usually associated with overt malignancies or with occult...

    Authors: Farzad Najafipour, Amir Bahrami, Mitra Niafar, Jalil Houshyar, Monireh Halimi and Vahideh Sadra
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:514
  20. Melnick–Needles syndrome and periventricular nodular heterotopia are two usually mutually exclusive phenotypes of F-actin-binding cytoskeletal phosphoprotein Filamin-A mutations. Melnick–Needles syndrome is a ...

    Authors: Maria Pia Riccio, Giuseppe D’Andrea, Emilia Sarnataro, Maria Marino, Carmela Bravaccio and Umberto Albert
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:495
  21. Pseudomonas stutzeri is a nonfluorescent denitrifying bacterium widely distributed in the environment, and it has also been isolated as an opportunistic pathogen from humans. It is a Gram-negative bacterium and a...

    Authors: Mayyadah Alabdely, Mohammed Alazmah, Bandar Alamro, Mohamad S. Alabdaljabar and Magid Halim
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:507
  22. Autoimmune diseases refers to a class of diseases involving abnormal immune response of human body and tissue damage caused by the dysregulation of autoimmune balance or destruction of immune tolerance. Recent...

    Authors: Lulu Zhang, Dongxue Ding, Liqiang Yu, Huan Qi, Chunru Han, Jianhua Jiang and Juean Jiang
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:498
  23. Cesarean scar pregnancy is a complicated and potentially life-threatening type of ectopic pregnancy. This study reports two women with cesarean scar pregnancy who were successfully treated with systemic methot...

    Authors: Zahra Heidar, Shahrzad Zadeh Modarres, Zhila Abediasl, Arezo Khaghani, Ensieh Salehi and Tayebeh Esfidani
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:506
  24. Gallbladder volvulus is a rare pathology first reported by Wendel in 1898. Although the main pathological process associated with gallbladder volvulus is not known, there is clinical evidence suggesting that l...

    Authors: Phillip Croce and Samuel Licata
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:494
  25. The clinical presentation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection is highly variable from asymptomatic infection to fulminant disease. The reasons for the variation are only starting to un...

    Authors: Terese L. Katzenstein, Sofie E. Jørgensen, Jann Mortensen, Marie Helleberg, Anna Kalhauge and Trine H. Mogensen
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:505
  26. The occurrence of acute leukemia in patients with sickle cell anemia is uncommon. The Philadelphia chromosome is the hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia. However, it may also be associated with acute lymphobl...

    Authors: Ibrahim O. Ahmed, Lauretta O. Ochogwu, Temilola O. Owojuyigbe, Norah O. Akinola and Muheez A. Durosinmi
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:504
  27. Regular outpatient rehabilitation is prescribed for many patients with chronic neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease or multiple sclerosis, to constantly support patients and their proxies in dis...

    Authors: Tobias Braun, Raphael Weidmann, Jens Carsten Möller, Anissa Ammann and Detlef Marks
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:503
  28. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is usually performed in cases of severe respiratory failure in which conventional and advanced mechanical ventilation strategies are ineffective in ach...

    Authors: Emiliano Gamberini, Venerino Poletti, Emanuele Russo, Alessandro Circelli, Marco Benni, Giovanni Scognamiglio, Domenico Pietro Santonastaso, Costanza Martino, Linda Domenichini, Romina Biondi, Giorgia Bastoni, Etrusca Brogi, Luca Ansaloni, Federico Coccolini, Paola Fugazzola, Martina Spiga…
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:499
  29. Minoxidil hair formulation is commonly used for the treatment of male or female androgenic alopecia. This over-the-counter product is considered safe, but should be used with caution. Ocular side effects follo...

    Authors: Ramesh Venkatesh, Arpitha Pereira, Nikitha Gurram Reddy and Naresh Kumar Yadav
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:493
  30. Macrophage activation syndrome is classified as a secondary form of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. It is a hyperinflammatory complication observed to be comorbid with a variety of autoimmune diseases, inc...

    Authors: Wesam Gouda, Faisal Alsaqabi, Abdelhfeez Moshrif, Awad S. Abbas, Tarek M. Abdel-Aziz and Md Asiful Islam
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:497
  31. Subdural hematoma is a rare, potentially devastating, yet curable complication of spinal anesthesia. Differentiation between post-dural puncture headache and subdural hematoma can be difficult, resulting in a ...

    Authors: Delayehu Bekele, Mehari Bayable and Alemayehu Bedane
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:492
  32. Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia is emerging as one of the most relevant side effects of adenoviral-based vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019. Given the novelty of this disease, the med...

    Authors: Nicole Ceschia, Valentina Scheggi, Anna Maria Gori, Angela Antonietta Rogolino, Francesca Cesari, Betti Giusti, Franco Cipollini, Niccolò Marchionni, Brunetto Alterini and Rossella Marcucci
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:496
  33. Cardiac myxoma is the most common type of primary cardiac tumor, and thymic carcinoid is a rare neuroendocrine tumor. No previous reports have described surgical management of concomitant occurrence of these n...

    Authors: Ryohei Matsushima, Kosuke Fujino, Eri Matsubara, Yoshiko Masuda, Koei Ikeda, Makoto Suzuki and Toshihiro Fukui
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:491
  34. Renal cell carcinoma is the third most common malignant tumor in the urogenital tract. An estimated 25% of renal cell carcinomas are in stage IV when diagnosed. The 5-year-survival with stage IV is about 20%. ...

    Authors: F. Bruckschen, C. D. Gerharz and A. Sagir
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:490
  35. Melkersson–Rosenthal syndrome is a rare disease characterized by the triad of recurrent orofacial swelling with facial paralysis and fissured dorsal tongue. Histologically, noncaseating granulomatous inflammat...

    Authors: J. Casper, S. Mohammad-Khani, J. J. Schmidt, J. T. Kielstein, T. Lenarz, H. Haller and Annette D. Wagner
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:488
  36. Metastases to the female genital tract from extragenital primary tumors are unusual. We report a rare case of uterine cervix metastasis from colon adenocarcinoma and discuss diagnostic and therapeutic issues.

    Authors: I. Sassi, M. Ghalleb, M. Chemlali, M. Mbarek, L. Charfi, R. Chargui and K. Rahal
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:486
  37. Neuromyelitis optica is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that predominantly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. In neuromyelitis optica, white blood cells and antibodies primarily at...

    Authors: Rodas Asrat Kassu, Hailu Abera Mulatu, Sisay Gizaw, Henok Fisseha, Amir Musema, Ayube Keder, Semere Negash, Fithanegest Tefera, Adugna Lissanwerk and Lemlem Tamrat
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:489
  38. Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) is a rare soft tissue sarcoma with a high recurrence rate and a low risk of distant metastasis. It occurs mainly in the extremities of elderly men. Head and neck MFS is extremely rare. S...

    Authors: Chiara Pagnoni, Luca Improta, Rossana Alloni, Francesco Mallozzi Santa Maria, Irene Aprile, Beniamino Brunetti, Carlo Greco, Bruno Vincenzi, Alessandro Gronchi and Sergio Valeri
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:484
  39. Ascaris in urinary bladder is an extremely rare phenomenon. It may occur after fistula formation between urinary and gastrointestinal tract or by retrograde migration of adult worm, and is associated with comp...

    Authors: Gashaw Mesele and Zelalem Mengistu
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:480
  40. Renal echinococcosis is of rare occurrence, and although often asymptomatic, it can present with various mild to drastic presentations, of which hydatiduria is pathognomonic. Diagnosis can be preliminarily est...

    Authors: Sameera Shuaibi, Abdelrahman AlAshqar, Munirah Alabdulhadi and Wasl Al-Adsani
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:487
  41. Graft-versus-host disease is a common complication seen with allogenic stem cell transplant, which is used to treat a variety of hematological malignancies. Graft-versus-host disease is an allogenic syndrome a...

    Authors: Anmar Al-Heilfi, Champa Nataraja, Helen Cooley and Tracey Batt
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:478
  42. Renal angiomyolipoma is considered a benign mesenchymal tumor composed of fat, smooth muscle, and blood vessels. It represents 1–3% of solid renal tumors. Despite this tumor’s benignity, it can be aggressive w...

    Authors: H. Bouaziz, M. Ghalleb, N. Tounsi, N. Riahi, H. Bouzaiene, J. Ziadi, J. Ben Hassouna, M. Slimane and K. Rahal
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:477
  43. Fibroepithelial polyps located in the ureter constitute 2–6% of all benign tumors in the urinary system. Distinguishing these lesions from transitional cell carcinoma is essential to avoid unnecessary nephrour...

    Authors: Serkan Akan and Caner Ediz
    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:475

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