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  1. Hemoglobin S and E are commonly occurring hemoglobin variants among distinctly separate tribal populations of Central and Northeast India, respectively. Combined heterozygosity for hemoglobin S and E or hemogl...

    Authors: Noymi Basumatary, Dipankar Baruah, Paresh Kumar Sarma and Jatin Sarmah

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:386

    Content type: Case report

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  2. The presence of uterine endometrial polyps is associated with not only abnormal uterine bleeding but also infertility, so the use of hysteroscopic polypectomy has been increasing. This operation is considered ...

    Authors: Asuka Okamura, Eriko Yano, Wataru Isono, Akira Tsuchiya, Michiko Honda, Ako Saito, Hiroko Tsuchiya, Reiko Matsuyama, Akihisa Fujimoto and Osamu Nishii

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:384

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Ectopic breast tissue is present in 2–6% of women. Ectopic breast cancer represents an uncommon disease accounting for about 0.3% of all breast neoplasms, limiting the available evidence. Thus, we aim to repor...

    Authors: S. Sghaier, M. GHalleb, I. Marghli, A. Bouida, J. Ben Hassouna, R. Chargui and K. Rahal

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:412

    Content type: Case report

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  4. The oblique lateral interbody fusion technique has received increasing attention for the treatment of degenerative disc disease in recent years. A series of complications have been reported, such as vascular i...

    Authors: Chen Liu, Yu Zhang, Xin Ge, Liang Xiao and Hongguang Xu

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:381

    Content type: Case report

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  5. Patients who undergo peritoneal dialysis (PD) are at risk of gut bacteria translocation leading to peritonitis when there is chronic diarrhea. Chronic diarrhea is defined as any course of diarrhea that lasts a...

    Authors: Nor Fadhlina Zakaria, Nurul Izah Ahmad, Elmina Mokhtar, Wan Zul Haikal Hafiz Wan Zukiman and Anim Md Shah

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:420

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Acetamiprid is a potent new first-generation neonicotinoid insecticide in agricultural practices. It is well described that it has low toxicity among animals and is lethal if consumed in large amounts. However...

    Authors: Selladurai Pirasath, Rajaram Senthuran, Chandrakulasegeran Athirayan, Mathyasekeran Gevakaran, Mahesan Guruparan and Ariaranee Gnanathasan

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:419

    Content type: Case report

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  7. Neurofibromatosis type 1 causes various lesions in many organs including the skin, and the incidence of complications with intracranial aneurysms is 9–11%. Here we report a case of neurofibromatosis type 1 wit...

    Authors: Tatsuya Uchida, Kenichi Amagasaki, Atsushi Hosono and Hiroshi Nakaguchi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:411

    Content type: Case report

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  8. Varicella zoster virus is a Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) virus exclusively affecting humans. Reactivation of varicella zoster virus causes herpes zoster with vesicular eruptions in a restricted dermatomal distr...

    Authors: Chamara Dalugama, Ruwanthi Jayasinghe, Nimanthi Rathnayaka and Arjuna Medagama

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:380

    Content type: Case report

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  9. There is no established treatment for fetal growth restriction during pregnancy. We report two cases that represent an example of an amnioinfusion-based management strategy for severe fetal growth restriction ...

    Authors: Daisuke Katsura, Yuichiro Takahashi, Shigenori Iwagaki, Rika Chiaki, Kazuhiko Asai, Masako Koike, Shunichiro Tsuji, Fuminori Kimura and Takashi Murakami

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:416

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Inflammatory pseudotumor-like follicular dendritic cell sarcoma is a rare histological variant of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma involving typically the spleen and the liver, often linked to the presence of...

    Authors: Ana Daniela Pascariu, Andreea Ioana Neagu, Andrei Valentin Neagu, Alexandru Băjenaru and Cezar Iulian Bețianu

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:410

    Content type: Case report

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  11. This paper describes a case of antiphospholipid syndrome-like condition caused by coronavirus disease 2019. The medical community still faces many diagnostic and therapeutic challenges vis-à-vis coronavirus di...

    Authors: Fatemeh Bahramnezhad, Banafsheh Ghorbani, Meysam Ghaedrahamt and Hamidreza Jamaati

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:408

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Plurihormonal pituitary adenomas are a unique type of pituitary adenomas that secrete two or more pituitary hormones normally associated with separate cell types that have different immunocytochemical and ultr...

    Authors: Ebtesam Allehaibi, Mussa H. AlMalki and Imad Brema

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:407

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Sudden cardiac arrest during spinal anesthesia is a rare event. However, its management by an unprepared team is difficult and carries poor outcomes. Hypoglycemia as the cause of sudden cardiac arrest is rarel...

    Authors: Temesgen Tilahun and Guteta Gudina

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:376

    Content type: Case report

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  14. Limbic encephalitis is an autoimmune neurologic disorder, often of paraneoplastic origin, that seldom complicates prostatic tumors. The nonspecificity of symptoms makes the diagnosis sometimes difficult to est...

    Authors: Omar Karray, Sven Tolner, Naïm Yarak, Maguy Cherfan, Mihaela Dana Cosma, Walid Sleiman, Philippe Niclot, Jean Louis Dubost, Patrick Coloby and Stéphane Bart

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:405

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is the fourth most common malignancy in children, and it is not considered to be a hereditary disorder. However, it could affect members from the same family.

    Authors: Naya Talal Hassan, Ebrahim Makhoul, Jafar Sallameh, Abdulmunem Ghanem, Samer Rajab, Waseem Ali and Zuheir Alshehabi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:375

    Content type: Case report

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  16. Intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor are commonly used to treat macular diseases, including diabetic macular edema. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs can enter the sys...

    Authors: Miwako Yoshimoto, Nobuhiko Takeda, Takayuki Yoshimoto and Shun Matsumoto

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:403

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Erythrocyte pyruvate kinase is expressed under the control of the PKLR gene located on chromosome 1q21. Pyruvate kinase catalyzes the final steps of the glycolytic pathway and creates 50% of the red cell total ad...

    Authors: Ahalyaa Sivashangar, Lallindra Gooneratne, Barnaby Clark, David Rees, Saroj Jayasinghe and Claire Laas

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:374

    Content type: Case report

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  18. Subdiaphragmatic abscesses are sometimes caused by intraabdominal infections. We report a case of endoscopic ultrasound-guided transgastric drainage.

    Authors: Tomoya Takami, Hiroshi Takihara, Koji Yasuda, Nozomi Kasyu, Hiroyuki Yoshitake, Hiroshi Shintani, Naoki Kataoka, Tomoyuki Yamaguchi and Shinichiro Makimoto

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:396

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Serotonin toxicity is a known side effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and has previously also been described as a possible side effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist (triptan) medicatio...

    Authors: Gilbert Jin and Philip Stokes

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:371

    Content type: Case report

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  20. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by the infiltration of blood and bone marrow by immature monocytes. Cerebral localization of chronic myelomonocyti...

    Authors: Clémence Haméon, Cécilia Rousselot, Flavie Arbion, Justine Cibron, Jean-Philippe Cottier, Christophe Destrieux, Olivier Hérault and Emmanuel Gyan

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:368

    Content type: Case report

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  21. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors are defined by the World Health Organization as “a collection of rare mesenchymal tumors composed of histologically and immunohistochemically distinctive perivascular epith...

    Authors: Ali McBride, Andrew J. Garcia, Lauren J. Sanders, Kelly Yiu, Lee D. Cranmer, Phillip H. Kuo, Matthew Kay and Andrew S. Kraft

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:400

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Proton pump inhibitors are frequently used (and often overused) medications with adverse effects including vitamin B12 deficiency, Clostridium difficile colitis, and increased risk of chronic kidney disease. Erec...

    Authors: Theodore W. Perry

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:360

    Content type: Case report

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  23. When diagnosing and treating neck masses, various diseases need to be considered, including benign or malignant tumors, lymph node-related diseases, and cysts. Thus, there may be cases in which making a defini...

    Authors: Hiroyuki Kaneko, Mami Deguchi and Hisashi Yano

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:402

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Leptospirosis is an underdiagnosed bacterial infection with nonspecific symptoms, hence, a diagnostic challenge. Identifying a case of leptospirosis in Switzerland is uncommon. Although kidney complications ar...

    Authors: Marc Weiner, Matteo Coen, Jacques Serratrice, Thomas A. Mavrakanas and Antonio Leidi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:358

    Content type: Case report

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  25. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion can be caused by arginine-vasopressin-producing tumors or enhanced arginine vasopressin secretion from the posterior pituitary gland due to central nerv...

    Authors: Masanori Hasebe, Jun Shirakawa, Daisuke Miyashita, Rieko Kunishita, Mayu Kyohara, Tomoko Okuyama, Yu Togashi and Yasuo Terauchi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:390

    Content type: Case report

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  26. Langerhans cells belong to the histiocytic system and give rise to two tumors: Langerhans cell histiocytosis and Langerhans cell sarcoma. Clinical aggressiveness and degree of atypia distinguish the two neopla...

    Authors: Marah Hamdan, Jesse C. Qiao and Vid Fikfak

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:357

    Content type: Case report

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  27. Cystoid macular edema is a rare, vision-threatening side effect of the taxane family of anticancer agents. There is no established treatment or standard treatment protocol for taxane-related cystoid macular ed...

    Authors: Mitsuru Otsubo, Reiko Kinouchi, Takayuki Kamiya and Akitoshi Yoshida

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:355

    Content type: Case report

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  28. The clinical history and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 among people not hospitalized is not yet well characterized. To better inform clinical evaluation, we set out to characterize the natural history o...

    Authors: Stefania Dzieciolowska, Oumeet Ravi and Roland Grad

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:393

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The topic of natural immunity related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 remains controversial. Although evidence suggests postinfection immunity can be achieved, there have been reported cases...

    Authors: Nimrah Bader, Mahmood Khattab and Fahmi Farah

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:392

    Content type: Case report

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  30. Hyperammonemic encephalopathy, a rare but fatal condition, is increasingly being reported as a possible complication of bariatric surgery. Here, we present a case of hyperammonemic encephalopathy, focusing on ...

    Authors: Nuphar Vinegrad, Orna Staretz-Chacham, Leonid Barski and Carmi Bartal

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:385

    Content type: Case report

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  31. Clinical guidelines do not recommend further investigation for occult malignancy in the scenario of unprovoked venous thromboembolism in the absence of additional clinical features suggestive of malignancy. We...

    Authors: Kaitlin J. Mayne, Emma Lewis and Lewis Vickers

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:354

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Morel-Lavallée lesions are posttraumatic, closed degloving injuries in which the skin and subcutaneous tissue are separated abruptly from superficial underlying fascia. This condition leads to an effusion cont...

    Authors: Claude Kasereka Masumbuko, Gabriel Kambale Bunduki and Mupenzi Mumbere

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:383

    Content type: Case report

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  33. Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (HL) is a rare malignancy characterised histologically by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells. Diagnosis of lymphomas can be difficult due to broad, non-specific presentations of disease, w...

    Authors: Anamika Banerjee, Kaljit Bhuller, Rajini Sudhir and Amrita Bajaj

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:351

    Content type: Case report

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  34. Phlebosclerotic colitis is a rare condition with a high mortality. It has been seen almost exclusively in Asian patients who are ≥ 60 years old, with a slight male predominance. Although it predominantly affec...

    Authors: J. Mohigefer, P. Gómez-Millán and J. J. Borrero

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:349

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Glomangioma is a benign tumor of mesenchymal origin, derived from the glomus body. It is responsible for the thermal regulation of the dermis. The occurrence of oncogenic osteomalacia related to glomangioma is...

    Authors: Camila R. Muniz, Gabriela A. M. Bezerra, Viviane C. da Silva, Priscilla M. F. Aguiar, Gunter Gerson, Catarina B. D’Alva and André A. A. Nunes

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:348

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Coronavirus disease 2019 has been a public health threat and a worldwide emergency for more than a year. Unfortunately, many questions concerning the pathophysiology, management, and long-term side effects rem...

    Authors: Hussein Awada, Hasan Nassereldine and Adel Hajj Ali

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:382

    Content type: Case report

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  37. The novel coronavirus, since its first identification in China, in December 2019, has shown remarkable heterogeneity in its clinical behavior. It has affected humans on every continent. Clinically, it has affe...

    Authors: Ahmed Maseh Haidary, Sarah Noor, Esmatullah Hamed, Tawab Baryali, Soma Rahmani, Maryam Ahmad, Farahnaz Erfani, Hashmatullah Azimi, Habib Ul Rahman Habib, Gul Ahmad Tahiri, Ramin Saadaat, Abdul Sami Ibrahimkhil, Esmatullah Esmat and Haider Ali Malakzai

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:379

    Content type: Case report

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  38. Solitary pulmonary nodules are the most common incidental finding on chest imaging. Their management is very well defined by several guidelines, with risk calculators for lung cancer being the gold standard. S...

    Authors: George Tsaknis, Muhammad Naeem, Advitya Singh and Siddharth Vijayakumar

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:347

    Content type: Case report

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  39. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease associated with pruritus. Skin affected by atopic dermatitis not only shows a high percentage of Staphylococcus aureus colonization, but corneal barrier dy...

    Authors: Shuhei Kubota, Masaaki Nemoto, Yuki Sakaeyama, Chie Nakada, Masataka Mikai, Yutaka Fuchinoue, Kosuke Kondo, Naoyuki Harada and Nobuo Sugo

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:373

    Content type: Case report

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  40. Klüver–Bucy syndrome is a rare and complex neurobehavioral cluster that occurs in humans and results from a temporal lobe lesion. It can be associated with a variety of causes. Stroke is a rarely reported caus...

    Authors: Alawi Aqel Al-Attas, Abdulrahman Yousef Aldayel, Tareq Hamad Aloufi and Nabil Biary

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:346

    Content type: Case report

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  41. We present an unusual case of a patient who developed four melanomas within a few months of diagnosis with human immunodeficiency virus and commencement of highly active antiretroviral therapy therapy. The pat...

    Authors: Sharad P. Paul, Simon Briggs and Michael Hitchcock

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:367

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus is a rare form of mucosal melanoma with a poor prognosis. While immune checkpoint inhibitors have recently extended overall survival in metastatic melanoma, data on ...

    Authors: Takeshi Okamoto, Eriko Nakano and Teruo Yamauchi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:345

    Content type: Case report

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  43. Cavities are frequent manifestations of a wide variety of pathological processes involving the lung. There has been a growing body of evidence of coronavirus disease 2019 leading to a cavitary pulmonary disease.

    Authors: Goar Egoryan, Elise Hyser, Ammar H. Mushtaq, Maria Adriana Yanez-Bello, Daniela Patricia Trelles-Garcia, Harvey J. Friedman and Guillermo Rodriguez-Nava

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:377

    Content type: Case report

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  44. Diaphragmatic hernia involves protrusion of abdominal contents into the thorax through a defect in the diaphragm. This defect can be caused either by developmental failure of the posterolateral foramina to fus...

    Authors: Konstantinos G. Spiridakis, Mathaios E. Flamourakis, Ioannis G. Gkionis, Eleni I. Kaloeidi, Anthoula I. Fachouridi, Styliani E. Konstantoulaki, Eleni S. Tsagkataki, Michail I. Giakoumakis, Emmamouil A. Vassilogiannakis, Georgios E. Kostakis and Manousos S. Christodoulakis

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:372

    Content type: Case report

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  45. Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis is a rare but potentially lethal complication of long-term peritoneal dialysis that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The occurrence of encapsulating pe...

    Authors: Saeed Mohammed AlZabali, Abdulkarim AlAnazi, Khawla A. Rahim and Hassan Y. Faqeehi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:366

    Content type: Case report

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  46. Bordetella trematum is unknown to most clinicians and microbiologists. However, this Gram-negative opportunistic bacterium can be responsible for ulcer superinfection but also bacteremia and sometimes death by se...

    Authors: M. Lacasse, K. Inyambo, A. Lemaignen, M. Mennecart, S. Gensburger, A. S. Valentin, L. Bernard and B. Fougère

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:365

    Content type: Case report

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