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Table 2 Preventive measures to avoid tension pneumothorax during flexible bronchoscopy on a spontaneously breathing patient

From: Iatrogenic tension pneumothorax in children: two case reports

• Always use a bronchoscope diameter markedly smaller than inner diameter of the patient's trachea.
• Use nasal prongs, a Venturi mask or non-invasive positive airway pressure ventilation to avoid or treat hypoxemia, instead of using the bronchoscope suction port to provide supplemental oxygen.
• If oxygen administration through the suction port is needed, use low-oxygen flow.