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Table 1 Preventive measures to avoid tension pneumothorax during apnea testing

From: Iatrogenic tension pneumothorax in children: two case reports

• Make sure that the external diameter of the endotracheal cannula is markedly smaller than the inner diameter of the endotracheal tube.
• Do not ever introduce the endotracheal cannula tip beyond the tip of the endotracheal tube. It should never wedge against any structure.
• Oxygen flow should not exceed 6 L/minute in adults and even less in small children.
• T-piece systems, bulk diffusion, and continuous positive airway pressure can be used to provide supplemental oxygen instead of inserting an oxygen cannula into the endotracheal tube.