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Table 1 Summary of previous reports of central retinal artery occlusion after retrobulbar anesthesia

From: Iatrogenic central retinal artery occlusion following retrobulbar anesthesia with adrenaline for vitreoretinal surgery: a case report

Study Age (years), gender Cardiovascular risk factors Diagnosis Procedure Therapy Time to treatment or examination (days) Preoperative Visual Acuity Postoperative Early Visual Acuity Postoperative Final Visual Acuity Follow-up (days)
Klein et al. [14] 19, F
43, F
33, F
59, M
DM Sickle-cell hemoglobinopathy Sickle-cell hemoglobinopathy Carotid insufficiency PDR SCR SCR OIS with secondary glaucoma Photocoagulation Photocoagulation Photocoagulation Photocoagulation Ocular massage
Ocular massage
None
AC paracentesis
Immediately Immediately
Immediately
20/50
NA
20/40
20/50
FC
HM
FC
NA
20/30
20/20
20/50
7
3
1
Sullivan et al. [36] 60, M
81, F
67, F
Acetylsalicylic acid daily Acetylsalicylic acid daily NA Cataract Cataract AACG Phaco + IOL Cataract extraction with AC IOL implantation Surgical iridectomy Kronlein lateral orbitotomy with nerve sheath decompression, carbogen inhalation, lowering IOP Mx
None
None
6
2
4
20/60
NA
20/32
20/60
NLP
20/200
6/60
NLP
6
0
7
Cowley et al. [35] 30, F DM PDR Photocoagulation Ocular massage, AC paracentesis, sublingual nitroglycerin, inhalation of carbon dioxide Immediate 20/80 NA NA NA
Mieler et al. [15] 34, F None Cataract Phaco+IOL None 1 NA LP HM 150
Roth et al. [34] 38, M Sickle-cell hemoglobinopathy Proliferative SCR Photocoagulation None Immediately NA HM HM 365
Giuffre et al. [13] 61, M HTN Cataract Extracapsular cataract extraction None 3 NA LP NLP 14
Torres et al. [33] 74, F
66, F
None HTN Cataract Cataract Extracapsular cataract extraction with IOL implantation Extracapsular cataract extraction with IOL implantation None
None
1 1 1 NA
NA
LP
LP
CRVO
CRVO
Mameletzi et al. [32] 78, F None Cataract Phaco + IOL Lowering IOP Mx, anticalcic therapy, methylprednisolone 1 NA LP HM 30
Tappeiner et al. [31] 58, M
79, M
83, F
HTN HTN, aorta aneurysm None Macular pucker Macular hole Vitreous hemorrhage Vitrectomy Vitrectomy Vitrectomy Lowering IOP Mx
Lowering IOP Mx
Lowering IOP Mx
2-14
2-14
2-14
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
20/320
LP
20/200
365
365
365
Jung et al. [2] 72, M
72, F
53, F
72, M
66, F
HTN, cerebral infarction HTN, DM, ICA stenosis, MI HTN, DM, ESRD, cerebral infarction HTN HTN Cataract
VH
VH
Macular pucker Cataract
Phaco + iol PPV PPV PPV Phaco + IOL Intraarterial thrombolysis Intraarterial thrombolysis Anteriorchamber paracentesis, lowering IOP Mx None intraarterial thrombolysis 1
1
7
1
1
NLP
NLP
HM
HM
HM
NA NLP
LP
NLP
FC
FC
1367
4
1577
1807
942
Vasavada et al. [4] 65, F
46, F
DM, HTN None Cataract Cataract MSICS Phaco + IOL Ocular massage, AC paracentesis, IOP lowering drops
None
1
30
NA
NA
NA
NA
CF
CF
NANA
Fischer et al. [30] 72, F
63, M
69, M
None DM None MH with several peripheral retinal degenerations Cataract RRD Encircling band, PPV, C2F6 (10%) Phaco + IOL PPV, encircling band, C2F6 (14%) None
None
None
19
69
21
0.4
0.5
0.1
NA
NA
NA
HM
1.0
HM
NA
NA
NA
Russell et al. [1] 28, M
70, F
Familiarity for MI HTN RRD Vitrous opacities PPV AC tap, timolol-dorzo., brimon., hyper-ventilation
None
1
1
20/15
20/25
LP
3/200
  300
180
Confalonieri et al. [29] 67, M History of MI Macular pucker PPV + peeling ERM None 1 0.5 0.05   120
  1. AC anterior chamber, CF counting finger, DM diabetes mellitus, ERM epiretinal membrane, ERSD end-stage renal disease, F female, FC finger counting, HM hand motion, HTN arterial hypertension, ICA internal carotid artery, IOL intraocular lens, IOP intraocular pressure, LP light perception, M male, MH macular hole, MI myocardial infarction, NLP no light perception, OIS ocular ischemic syndrome, PPV pars plana vitrectomy, RRD regmatogenous retinal detachment, SCR sickle cell retinopathy