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Table 3 Pre- and post-treatment outcomes

From: Effects of dry needling on muscle spasticity of the upper limb in a survivor of traumatic brain injury: a case report

Variables Pre-intervention Post-intervention
Upper limb BRS 4 5
Hand function BRS 4 5
MMAS (elbow flexor) 1 0
MMAS (forearm pronator) 3 3
MMAS (wrist flexor) 2 1
MMAS (thumb flexor) 3 2
MMAS (thumb adductor) 4 3
PRF(elbow flexor) 10 5
PRF (forearm pronator) 30 30
PRF(wrist flexor) 20 10
PRF(thumb flexor) 10 7
PRF (thumb adductor) 10 7
AROM elbow extension − 30 0
AROM wrist extension 25 30
AROM supination 15 15
AROM thumb extension 0 5
AROM thumb abduction 0 5
PROM elbow extension 0 0
PROM wrist extension 30 50
PROM supination 20 20
PROM thumb extension 30 70
PROM thumb abduction 20 20
Box and block test (boxes in 1 minute) Affected side Unaffected side Affected side Unaffected side
  3 32 9 40
  1. BSR brunnstrom recovery stages, MMAS modified modified ashworth scale, PRF passive resistance force, AROM active range of motion, PROM passive range of motion