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Table 1 Brunnstrom recovery stages.

From: Effects of dry needling on muscle spasticity of the upper limb in a survivor of traumatic brain injury: a case report

Stages Description
Stage 1 Flaccidity; no movements of the limbs can be initiated
Stage 2 Spasticity begins to develop; the basic limb synergies or some of their components may be present
Little or no active finger flexion can be performed.
Stage 3 Spasticity is marked; the basic limb synergies are performed voluntarily
Mass grasp; hook grasp with no release; no voluntary finger extension
Stage 4 Spasticity begins to decrease; some movement combinations that deviated the synergies become available
Small-range semi-voluntary finger extension
Stage 5 Spasticity is diminishing. More difficult movement combinations can be performed
Voluntary mass extension of fingers
Stage 6 No spasticity; isolated joint movements can be performed normally
Voluntary extension of fingers.