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Table 1 Proposed causes of iris ischemia and atrophy resulting in Urrets-Zavalia Syndrome (UZS)

From: Unilateral Urrets-Zavalia syndrome after Implantable Collamer Lens implantation: a case report and review of the literature

Increased intraocular pressure at postoperative period:
     Retention of a viscoelastic agent after phakic IOL implantation [14]
     Pupillary block due to air or gas bubble in the anterior chamber after anterior segment surgical procedures such as DALK, DSAEK, and intracameral C3F8 injection for treatment of acute corneal hydrops [5, 6, 17]
Direct trauma to iris during penetrating keratoplasty [18]
Vascular strangulation caused by intraocular contents pushing lens–iris diaphragm against the edge of host cornea [3, 12]
Severe toxic anterior segment syndrome [19]
Surgically induced hypromellose toxicity to vasculature or sphincter of iris [10]