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Table 2 Review of colon choriocarcinoma cases

From: Primary colon adenocarcinoma with choriocarcinoma differentiation: a case report and review of the literature

Case (N = 32) Sex/age (years) Primary tumor Metastatic tumor Peak serum β-hCG (mIU/ml) Treatment/management Survival (months)
Location Histology Location Histology
Park and Reid 1980 [1] F/49 Sigmoid A + C Liver, lung, diaphragm, rLN, dLN C NR Palliative resection with colostomy 3.5
Nguyen 1982 [2] M/74 Sigmoid A + C Liver NR 186,000 Laparotomy with sigmoidectomy 2.5
Ordóñez and Luna 1984 [3] F/35 Ascending/cecum A + C Liver, lung, pleura, pericardium, rLN, dLN, bone C 1612 Explorative laparotomy with right hemicolectomy 3
Kubosawa et al. 1984 [4] F/50 Sigmoid A + C Liver, lung, dLN C 230,000 Hartmann operation with colostomy 1
Metz et al. 1985 [5] F/42 Sigmoid A + C Liver, lung, spleen, rLN, dLN A + C 154,000 Explorative laparotomy 1
Lind and Haghighi 1986 [6] M/42 Ascending C Liver, lung, spleen, bone, dLN, kidneys, brain C 610,000 Laparotomy
Bleomycin + vinblastine + cisplatin
Whole-brain irradiation
1
Ostör et al. 1993 [7] F/28 Rectum A + C Liver, rLNs C + YS 1.4 × 106 Anterior resection
EMA + leucovorin (one dose)
3
Rodilla et al. 1995 [8] M/84 Rectum C rLN C 5 Local radiotherapy
Cyclophosphamide + doxorubicin (four cycles)
Laparotomy with rectosigmoidectomy
3.5
Tokisue et al. 1996 [9] F/29 Rectum A + C Lung, brain NR 49,000 EMA
Surgical resection
EMA + cisplatin + doxorubicin (two cycles)
Whole-brain irradiation
10
Kim et al. 1997 [10] F/66 Ascending A + C NR NR NR Surgical resection NR
Oh et al. 1997 [11] M/60 Sigmoid A + C Liver, lung, thyroid, brain, larynx, rLN C 8772 Sigmoidectomy
MTX + vincristine + VP16 + leucovorin (six cycles)
Whole-body radiation
15
Kiran et al. 2001 [12] M/68 Rectum A + C Liver, rLN A + C >  700,000 Hartmann procedure
Total colectomy
NR
Petricek, 2001 [13] M/29 Transverse A + C + YS Liver, rLN, dLN YS 729 μg/L None 6 days
Le et al. 2003 [14] M/73 Ascending C Lung, brain, kidney, pancreas, rLN, descending colon C 146,000 None 10 days
Verbeek et al. 2004 [15] F/54 Rectum A + C Liver, lung C 102,000 Surgical resection
VIP-cisplatin (four cycles)
Thoracotomy with resection of residual lung metastases
8
Jeong et al. 2007 [16] M/52 Rectum A + C Liver, lung, rLN C 42,910 Abdominoperineal resection
BEP-cisplatin
1.5
Kawahara et al. 2009 [17] M/62 Ascending/cecum A + C + YS Liver, intramural, dLN C + YS NR Right hemicolectomy
5-FU via hepatic arterial infusion
4
Froylich et al. 2010 [18] F/57 Descending C Lung, bone, brain A + C 13,000 Left colectomy
VIP-cisplatin + mesna (four cycles)
Bilateral upper lobectomies
16
Gifford et al. 2010 [19] F/33 Colon (unspecified) C Liver, lung, omentum NR 116,725 Chemotherapy, unspecified (several cycles) 4.5
Harada et al. 2012 [20] F/58 Sigmoid A + C None 2420 Hartmann operation
Mitomycin C
EMA
UFT + leucovorin (ten cycles)
60+
Jiang et al. 2013 [21] M/36 Ascending C Liver, rLN C 10,000 Colectomy
BEP-cisplatin
6+
Maehira et al. 2013 [22] M/68 Sigmoid A + C Liver, rLN C 3929 ng/ml Sigmoidectomy
mFOLFOX6
mFOLFOX6 + bevacizumab (eight cycles)
FOLFIRI + bevacizumab
9
Mardi et al. 2014 [23] F/54 Rectum A + C rLN NR 4568 Radical resection
5-FU + leucovorin
50 days
Tsujimoto et al. 2014 [24] M/38 Sigmoid A + C Liver, adrenals, peritoneum NR 1.32 ng/ml Sigmoidectomy
mFOLFOX6 + bevacizumab
59 days
Julián et al. 2015 [25] M/45 Sigmoid A + C Liver, rLN A + C 22,288 BEP-cisplatin (two cycles)
Exploratory laparotomy with palliative colostomy
3
Oh et al. 2015 [26] F/61 Sigmoid A + C Liver NR 35 FOLFIRI + bevacizumab (five cycles)
FOLFOX (three cycles)
13
Koelzer et al. 2016 [27] F/61 Cecum C Liver, peritoneum, spleen, uterus, ovary, rectum, bone NR 70,173 Right hemicolectomy
XELOXIRI + bevacizumab (two cycles)
BEP
Carboplatin + bleomycin
Ifosfamide + vinblastine
Surgical tumor debulking
Paclitaxel (two cycles)
34
Parker et al. 2016 [28] F/51 Ascending A + C Liver, mesentery, dLN NR 96,000 EMA/CO NR
Pezzuto et al. 2017 [29] M/47 Cecum C Lung, brain NR NR Colectomy with lymph node dissection NR-”died in a little time”
Iliev et al. 2018 [30] −−/54 Ascending C rLN C 67.1 Extended right hemicolectomy
EMA (3 months)
12+
Fang et al. 2019 [31] F/29 Ascending C Lung, vertebrae NR NR None Few days
Our patient F/26 Sigmoid A + C Liver, lung A + C 916,335 Sigmoidectomy
FOLFOX (one dose)
EMA/CO (14 cycles)
FOLFOX + bevacizumab (5 cycles)
FOLFIRI + bevacizumab
TBD
  1. Abbreviations: A adenocarcinoma, BEP bleomycin + etoposide (VP16) + platinum, C choriocarcinoma, dLN distant lymph nodes, EMA/CO etoposide + methotrexate (MTX) + actinomycin D ± cyclophosphamide + vincristine, FOLFIRI folinic acid + fluorouracil (5FU) + irinotecan, FOLFOX folinic acid + fluorouracil (5FU) + oxaliplatin, NR not reported, rLN regional lymph nodes, TBD to be determined, UFT uracil + tegafur, VIP etoposide (VP16) + ifosfamide + cisplatin, XELOXIRI capecitabine, oxaliplatin, irinotecan, YS yolk sac