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Table 1 Five cases showing sarcomatous changes in hepatocellular carcinoma

From: Hepatitis C virus relapse after successful treatment with direct-acting antivirals, followed by sarcomatous changes in hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report

CaseAge (years)SexBackgroundHCV AbAFP (ng/ml)PIVKA-II (mAU/ml)Central necrosisExtrahepatic growthDistant metastasisTreatment before sarcomatous change
181MaleChronic hepatitis+n.a.n.a.++PEIT
266MaleLiver cirrhosis+75639,700+++TAE
374FemaleLiver cirrhosis+4.420+++RFA
483FemaleLiver cirrhosis+592614+RFA, TACE
Our patient74MaleLiver cirrhosis+2.319+++RFA
  1. Abbreviations: AFP α-Fetoprotein, n.a. Not available, PEIT Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy, PIVKA-II Protein induced by vitamin K absence/antagonist-II, RFA Radiofrequency ablation, TACE Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, TAE Transcatheter arterial embolization
  2. Five cases with sarcomatous changes, including our patient’s case, have been observed at autopsy at our institute