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Table 3 Summary of literature on the adverse effects of energy drink consumption

From: Acute kidney injury and hepatitis associated with energy drink consumption: a case report

ReferenceCase summaryConclusion
1- Schöffl et al., 2011 [4]According to Schöffl et al., Lehtihet M et al. in 2006 reported the case of a 31-year-old football referee who consumed EDs (750 ml) and developed AKIAcute tubular necrosis and rhabdomyolysis
2-Schöffl et al., 2011 [4]A 17-year-old boy consumed 3 L of EDs with 1 L of vodka (4600 mg of taurine, 780 mg caffeine, and 380 g of alcohol) with AKITaurine accumulation. AKI resolved in 10 days but required hemodialysis
3-Greene et al., 2014 [5]A 40-year-old man consumed 100–120 oz. of EDs daily for 2–3 weeks. Presented with hypoglycemia and AKI (creatinine 5.5 mg/dL)Taurine accumulation, creatinine returned to normal after 2 days of ED discontinuation
4-Vivekanandarajah et al., 2011 [6]A 22-year-old woman consumed ten cans of an energy drink daily for 2 weeks and presented with AH. On presentation, AST, ALT, and total bilirubin were 7709 U/l, 7533 U/l, 3.5 mg/dL and on discharge day 4 they were 238 U/l, 1947 U/l, and 1.7 mg/dL, respectivelyHepatotoxicity was believed related to ED consumption, which included niacin 300 mg/day
5-Huang et al., 2014 [7]A 36-year-old man consumed three 8 oz. sugar-free EDs daily for a year with a history of many years of weekend binge drinking. He presented with AH; AST 1541 U/L, ALT 2995 U/L, and bilirubin 16.1 mg/dL with continued liver impairment eventually requiring orthotopic liver transplantationLiver biopsy consistent with herbal/drug toxicity. Niacin dose was only 120 mg per day
6-Harb et al., 2016 [8]A 50-year-old man consumed four to five EDs (40 mg of niacin each) per day over 3 weeks. He presented with AH; AST 4051 U/L, AST 2073 U/L, bilirubin 19.3 mg/dL. He improved after discontinuation of EDsLiver biopsy showed severe acute hepatitis with bridging necrosis and marked cholestasis. Daily intake of niacin was approximately 160–200 mg
  1. AH acute hepatitis, AKI acute kidney injury, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, EDs energy drinks