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Table 1 Summary of cases of isolated testicular or bladder vasculitis from literature search

From: Polyarteritis nodosa isolated to the testis and urinary bladder in the setting of cryptorchidism: a case report and literature review

Authors Age/gender Organ affected Systemic symptoms ANCA ESR/CRP Pathology Systemic therapya
Persellin and Menke (1992) [3] 29/M Testis None N/A N/A Necrotizing small and medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN None (F/u 17 months)
Halim et al. (1994) [4] 71/M Testis None Neg Normal Necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis None (F/u 24 months)
Mukamel et al. (1995) [5] 28/M Testis None N/A Normal Necrotizing small vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN None (F/u 27 months)
Mukamel et al. (1995) [5] 35/M Testis None N/A Normal Necrotizing vasculitis consistent with PAN None (F/u 36 months)
Kessel et al. (2001) [6] 13.5/M Testis None Neg Elevated Necrotizing small and medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN None (F/u 24 months)
Hashiguchi et al. (2001) [7] 37/M Testis None N/A Normal Necrotizing small and medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN None (F/u 9 months)
Eilber et al. (2001) [8] 43/M Testis Fever, myalgia, and hematuria N/A Elevated Necrotizing vasculitis consistent with PAN (cystoscopy normal) Not reported (F/u unclear)
Fraenkel-Rubin et al. (2002) [9] 26/M Testis None Neg Normal Necrotizing small and medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN None (F/u 30 months)
Dotan et al. (2003) [10] 32/M Testis None Neg Normal Necrotizing medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN None (F/u 60 months)
Tanuma et al. (2003) [11] 40/M Testis None N/A Normal Necrotizing small and medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN None (F/u 22 months)
Fleischmann and Studer (2007) [12] 21/M Testis None N/A Normal Necrotizing small and medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN None (F/u 24 months)
Giannarini et al. (2009) [13] 36/M Testis None Neg Normal Necrotizing medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN None (F/u 60 months)
Atis et al. (2010) [14] 57/M Testis None Neg Normal Necrotizing medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN None (F/u unclear)
Saito et al. (2013) [15] 78/M Testis None Neg N/A Necrotizing vasculitis of epididymis consistent with PAN None (F/u 12 months)
Lintern et al. (2013) [16] 21/M Testis None Neg Normal Necrotizing medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN Not reported (F/u unclear)
Garg and Dawson (2015) [17] 36/M Testis None Neg N/A Necrotizing small and medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN None (F/u 3 months)
Dixit et al. (2017) [18] 84/M Testis None Pos Elevated Non-granulomatous medium vessel vasculitis Not reported (lost to follow-up)
Brimo et al. (2011) [19] 35/M Testis None Neg Normal Necrotizing small and medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN None (F/u unclear)
Brimo et al. (2011) [19] 31/M Testis None Neg Normal Necrotizing small and medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN None (F/u unclear)
Brimo et al. (2011) [19] 63/M Testis None Neg Normal Non-necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis None (F/u unclear)
Brimo et al. (2011) [19] 38/M Testis None Neg Normal Necrotizing small and medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN None (F/u unclear)
Brimo et al. (2011) [19] 38/M Testis N/A N/A N/A Lymphocytic vasculitis Not reported (F/u unclear)
Brimo et al. (2011) [19] 31/M Testis None Neg Normal Necrotizing small and medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN None (F/u unclear)
Brimo et al. (2011) [19] 53/M Testis None Neg Normal Necrotizing small and medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN None (F/u unclear)
Brimo et al. (2011) [19] 31/M Testis N/A N/A N/A Necrotizing small and medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN Not reported (F/u unclear)
Brimo et al. (2011) [19] 23/M Testis None Neg Normal Necrotizing small and medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN None (F/u unclear)
Brimo et al. (2011) [19] 40/M Testis N/A N/A N/A Necrotizing small and medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN Not reported (F/u unclear)
Brimo et al. (2011) [19] 34/M Testis N/A N/A N/A Necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis Not reported (F/u unclear)
Brimo et al. (2011) [19] 27/M Testis None Neg Normal Necrotizing small and medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN Prednisone (F/u unclear)
Brimo et al. (2011) [19] 20/Mb Testis Fever, night sweats Pos Elevated Non-necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis Prednisone, cyclophosphamide (F/u unclear)
Brimo et al. (2011) [19] 40/M Testis Fatigue Neg Elevated Necrotizing small and medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN Prednisone, MMF (F/u unclear)
Brimo et al. (2011) [19] 28/M Testis Fever, myalgia Neg Elevated Necrotizing small and medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN Prednisone, cyclophosphamide (F/u unclear)
Brimo et al. (2011) [19] 44/Mb Testis Fevers, sweats, weight loss Neg Elevated Necrotizing small and medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN Prednisone, cyclophosphamide (F/u unclear)
Brimo et al. (2011) [19] 38/Mb Testis None Neg Elevated Necrotizing small and medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN Prednisone (F/u unclear)
Brimo et al. (2011) [19] 34/M Testis N/A Neg Normal Necrotizing small and medium vessel vasculitis consistent with PAN Prednisone, cyclophosphamide (F/u unclear)
Pastor-Navarro et al. (2007) [20] 26/M Testis None Neg N/A Necrotizing vasculitis consistent with PAN Steroids (F/u 12 months)
Breuer et al. (2015) [21] 19/Mb Testis Erythema nodosum (8 years after initial episode of testicular symptoms) N/A Normal Vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis consistent with PAN Prednisone, AZA, rituximab (F/u > 8 years)
Bhatia et al. (2018) [22] 52/M Testis None Neg Elevated Necrotizing vasculitis consistent with PAN Prednisone, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate (F/u 8 months)
Islam et al. (2018) [23] 41/M Testis Polyarthritis, weight loss, rash Neg N/A Necrotizing vasculitis of medium and large vessels consistent with PAN Steroids, methotrexate (F/u unclear)
Fischer et al. (1998) [24] 32/M Bladder None Neg Elevated Necrotizing vasculitis of the medium-sized arteries consistent with PAN. Positive for hepatitis B surface antigen immunostaining TURBT, steroids (F/u 18 months)
Fischer et al. (1998) [24] 61/F Bladder None Neg N/A Small vessel vasculitis Steroids, cyclophosphamide (F/u 12 months)
Katz et al. (2005) [25] 59/M Bladder Fatigue, sweats, weight loss Neg Elevated Necrotizing vasculitis of small and large vessels Prednisolone (F/u 3 months)
Becker et al. (2008) [26] 53/M Bladder None Neg Elevated Necrotizing vasculitis of small vessels TURBT, prednisone, cyclophosphamide (F/u 1 month)
Kassir et al. (2013) [27] 31/M Bladder Fever N/A Elevated Non-granulomatous, small and medium vessel thrombotic vasculitis TURBT (F/u 9 months)
Fall et al. (2018) [28] 45/M Bladder None Neg Normal Fibrinoid degeneration with neutrophil infiltration into vessel walls consistent with vasculitis TURBT, Prednisone, AZA (F/u 60 months)
  1. ANCA antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, AZA azathioprine, CRP C-reactive protein, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, F female, F/u follow-up, M male, MMF mycophenolate mofetil, N/A not applicable, Neg negative, PAN polyarteritis nodosa, Pos positive, TURBT transurethral resection of bladder tumor
  2. a All patients with isolated testicular vasculitis underwent orchiectomy
  3. b These patients went on to develop systemic vasculitis or persistent mild cutaneous vasculitis