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Table 1 Relative risk for developing active tuberculosis

From: Development of active tuberculosis during treatment of head and neck carcinoma: a case series

Risk factor Estimated risk of tuberculosisa References
High-risk group
 1) HIV infection 35–170 [2, 3]
 2) Chronic renal failure and/or hemodialysis 10–25 [2, 3]
 3) Solid organ transplantation 20–74 [2, 3]
 4) Silicosis 30 [2, 3]
Increased risk group
 1) Treatment with glucocorticosteroids 2–4 [2, 3]
 2) TNF-α inhibitors 1.5–4 [2]
 3) Diabetes mellitus 2–4 [2, 3]
Head and neck carcinoma 16 [4]
2.86 [5]
  1. HIV human immunodeficiency virus, TNF tumor necrosis factor
  2. aRelative to persons with no known risk factors