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Table 2 Reported cases of hypodipsic-hypernatremia with intact arginine vasopressin response

From: Hypodipsic-hypernatremia syndrome in an adult with polycythemia: a case report

Case Age at diagnosis (years) Sex Serum sodium concentration (mmol/L) Urine osmolality (mOsm/kg) Hb (g/dL) / Hct (%) AVP concentration (pg/ml) Final diagnosis Treatment
Conley et al., 1976 [20] 7 F 194 1129 NR ND Idiopathic Water-drinking schedule
Powell et al., 1983 [12] 9 M 145–165 > 1000 −/44.6 ND Possible post-viral hypothalamic dysfunction Diuretics
Salt restriction
Pitressin (vasopressin)
Water-drinking schedule
Farley et al., 1986 [13] 17 M 181 645 NR Normal response to saline infusion Schizophrenia Treatment of psychosis
Hammond et al., 1986 [5] 5 NR 150 1112–1138 Reported as normal 14.2–17.3
(free water-drinking and serum sodium concentration ranging from 149 to 150 mmol/L)
Congenital CMV Water-drinking schedule
Assadi et al., 1989 [14] 6 F 187 854 14.5/43.9 25.6 (water deprivation test) Head injury Water-drinking schedule
Franco-Saenz et al., 1989 [23] 22 M 181 1295 −/42.8 3.3 pmol/L
(normal AVP response: >  3.2 pmol/L when serum osmolality > 302 mOsm/kg)
Hydrocephalus Intravenous fluids and forced water-drinking
Phillips and Gabow, 1990 [4] 34 M 165 898 NR ND Psychotic depression Electroconvulsive therapy
Zünd et al., 1998 [22] 45 M 171 700 NR 3-fold rise in response to thirst test Stroke NR
Kang et al., 2001 [15] 25 M 168 623 11.9/35.3 >  14.16 (1.0–6.7) (water deprivation test) Brain tumor Radiotherapy, steroids, thyroxine, water-drinking schedule
López-Capapé et al., 2004 [16] 12 M 162 1230 NR 12.8 (2.5% salt load) Idiopathic Water-drinking schedule
Ramthun et al., 2011 [21] 56 M 157 1.026 (SG) NR NR Hemorrhagic stroke Water-drinking schedule
Mattai, 2011 [17] 36 F 176 1172 NR NR Craniopharyngioma or germ cell tumor Initial treatment with 0.45% saline followed by oral intake
Sabzghabaei and Rastegar, 2015 [18] 27 M 171 840 NR ND Idiopathic Water-drinking schedule
Manning et al., 2017 [19] 56 M 181 1080 NR ND Psychogenic adipsia Water-drinking schedule
Mirtazapine
Clonazepam
Chothia; this case report 25 M 142–154 763–1040 17.8–20.2 / 55–69 ND Idiopathic Water-drinking schedule
  1. AVP arginine vasopressin, CMV cytomegalovirus, F female, Hb hemoglobin, Hct hematocrit, M Male, ND not done, NR not reported, SG specific gravity