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Table 1 Causes for pediatric acute ischemic stroke classified in major categories

From: Moyamoya disease in a Moroccan baby: a case report

Arteriopathies Arterial fibromuscular dysplasia, arteriovenous malformation, arterial dissection, moyamoya disease, transient cerebral arteriopathy of childhood, primary central nervous system vasculitis, cranial radiotherapy
Vasculitis Meningitis, postinfectious systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, granulomatous angiitis, Takayasu’s arteritis, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatomyositis, inflammatory bowel disease, hemolytic uremic syndrome
Hematologic disorders and coagulopathies Hemoglobinopathies (sickle cell anemia, sickle cell–hemoglobin C, sickle-thalassemia), purpura, thrombocytosis, polycythemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, leukemia or other neoplasms, congenital coagulation defects, lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies
Metabolic disorders Mitochondrial disorders (MELAS syndrome), urea metabolic disorders, homocystinuria, aminoaciduria, glutaric acidemia type I, lysosomal disorders, Fabry’s disease
Heart diseases Congenital malformations: ventricular/atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, aortic/mitral stenosis, coarctation, complex congenital heart defects
Acquired: rheumatic heart disease, endocarditis, myocarditis, arrhythmia
Traumatic Child abuse, post-traumatic arterial dissection, blunt cervical arterial trauma, post-traumatic carotid cavernous fistula, penetrating intracranial trauma
  1. By Rosa et al. [29] (licensed under a CCBY4.0 licence: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
  2. MELAS mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes