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Fig. 5 | Journal of Medical Case Reports

Fig. 5

From: Improvement of renal function after human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell treatment on chronic renal failure and thoracic spinal cord entrapment: a case report

Fig. 5

Properties of mesenchymal stem cell in kidney diseases. Mesenchymal stem cell, soluble factors, or microvesicles can be delivered to the kidney via the intraperitoneal, intra-arterial, intravenous, intraparenchymal, or intraosseous route. They exert a series of renoprotective and regenerative actions on the injured tissue through various paracrine mechanisms: antifibrotic and antiapoptotic, proangiogenic, proliferative and differentiative, antioxidative stress, and immunosuppression and immunomodulation of the immune system [6]. MSC mesenchymal stem cell, ROS reactive oxygen species, Arrow enhancement, T-bar reduction

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