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Fig. 4 | Journal of Medical Case Reports

Fig. 4

From: Improvement of renal function after human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell treatment on chronic renal failure and thoracic spinal cord entrapment: a case report

Fig. 4

Stem cell therapies can result in neuroprotection, neuroregeneration, and/or enhance neuronal plasticity following spinal cord intrusion. a Neuroprotection refers to preservation and protection of neural tissue from secondary pathophysiology, including hemorrhage, ischemia as well as occlusion, infiltration of immune cells, demyelination, and apoptosis. Stem cells can be neuroprotective by reducing blood–spinal cord barrier disruption, improving vascular function, creating an anti-inflammatory environment, limiting demyelination, and decreasing apoptosis. b Neuroregenerative strategies aim to replace the damaged cells in the spinal cord by modifying the intrusion environment to either stimulate endogenous regeneration or exogenous cell transplantation. Stem cells can be neuroregenerative by providing an extracellular matrix scaffold within the cystic cavity, trophic support, remyelinating damaged axons, and cell replacement. c Damaged neurons, inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, and inhibitory components of central nervous system myelin restrict neuronal plasticity post-spinal cord injury. By promoting collateral sprouting, via trophic support, cell therapy can enhance the reorganization of neural pathways [11]. BSCB blood–spinal cord barrier, CNS central nervous system, CSPGs chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, ECM extracellular matrix

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