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Table 1 Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging associated findings, and fetal karyotype in reported cases with prenatally diagnosed esophageal atresia with duodenal atresia

From: Twin pregnancy complicated by esophageal atresia, duodenal atresia, gastric perforation, and hypoplastic left heart structures in one twin: a case report and review of the literature

Authors; year GA at Dx Associated ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings Karyotype
Duenhoelter et al. [31] 1976 Near term Ultrasound showed two communicating upper abdominal masses. It also failed to ingest contrast media after injection of radiopaque material into the amniotic sac Normal
Hayden et al. [8] 1983 34 Ultrasound showed two large fluid-filled cystic structures within the fetal abdomen T21
Estroff et al. [32] 1994 16.5 Ultrasound showed an abdominal C-shaped fluid collection suggesting a dilated stomach which extended into the chest behind the heart. A follow-up ultrasound showed continuity between the fluid collection in the fetal chest and the dilated stomach. Later, fetal ascites and skin edema developed Normal
16.7 Ultrasound showed an abdominal C-shaped fluid collection suggesting a dilated stomach with progressive polyhydramnios Normal
22.5 Ultrasound showed an abnormal triangular cranial shape in addition to dumbbell-shaped stomach. Mild to moderate polyhydramnios was appreciated Normal
Pameijer et al. [33] 2000 18 Level II ultrasound showed a cystic mass, which was assumed to be the stomach, with a posterior mediastinal, intrathoracic portion compressing the left atrium. No evidence of dilated proximal esophageal pouch. On follow-up polyhydramnios was appreciated with the presence of the classic “double bubble” sign. Ultrafast fetal magnetic resonance imaging showed a cystic mass extending through the esophageal hiatus. Postnatal findings: pure esophageal atresia, duodenal atresia, biliary atresia, and pancreatic ductal atresia. Subsequently, the neonate was diagnosed with a type I choledochal cyst T21
Marquette et al. [34] 2004 12 Ultrasound showed a single large cystic structure in the anterior upper abdomen T21
Mitani et al. [11] 2009 25 Ultrasound showed a double cystic structure with a dilated stomach and duodenum and an intrathoracic cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound at 26 weeks showed shrinkage of the stomach and duodenum and appearance of massive ascites, suggesting rupture of either structures. Distention of the proximal esophagus was noted as an “upper pouch” sign. Polyhydramnios was noted at 30 weeks Normal
Kanasugi et al. [24] 2013 20 Ultrasound showed multicystic dysplastic left kidney, normal-sized stomach, no abdominal cysts, no cardiac anomalies, and no limb abnormalities. At 31 weeks of gestation, fetus A developed a left hydroureter with dilatation of the colon Normal
Kadohira et al. [25] 2014 17 Ultrasound showed intra-abdominal cystic mass with typical “double bubble” sign with no other structural abnormalities. Follow-up ultrasound at 26 weeks demonstrated marked dilatation of the stomach and duodenum. Similar to our findings, a peristalsis-like movement was appreciated in the mediastinum of the fetus and subsequently confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging to be a dilated distal esophageal pouch Normal
  1. Dx diagnosis, GA gestational age