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Table 1 Essential elements of a nephrology case report

From: How to write a case report in nephrology

Acute kidney injury:
Serum creatinine (at presentation and at baseline), estimated glomerular filtration rate
24-hour urine output (if able to quantify)
Urine analysis (especially blood and protein in urine)
Urine microscopy
Imaging of kidneys (if available)
Medication review to evaluate for nephrotoxic medications
Acute glomerulonephritis/nephrotic syndrome:
Hypertension
Systemic symptoms/signs (edema, anasarca, arthritis or rash)
Urine analysis (especially blood and protein in urine)
Urine microscopy (specifically presence or absence of dysmorphic red blood cells or casts)
Urine albumin to creatinine ratio (urine protein to creatinine ratio or 24-hour urine protein)
Kidney biopsy findings
Kidney biopsy:
Light microscopy
Number of glomeruli obtained in biopsy sample
Proportion of glomeruli affected
Description of pathological findings (with hematoxylin and eosin or periodic acid–Schiff staining) and any special staining
Immunofluorescent microscopy
Type of immunoglobulin and complement evaluated
Staining pattern (location) and degree (trace to 3+)
Electron microscopy
Significant findings (helpful if images can be included)
Drug therapies in glomerular disorders:
Specify details on immunosuppression regimen for induction and maintenance, mode of administration (oral or intravenous), dose and frequency
Include details on evidence of remission or lack of response
Dialysis therapy:
State type of dialysis (intermittent hemodialysis, continuous renal replacement therapy or peritoneal dialysis)
Type of dialysis access
Dialysis prescription (frequency, duration, composition and volume of dialysate fluid) and any significant machine settings
Electrolyte and acid–base disorder:
Details of electrolyte disorder at baseline and at presentation
Appropriate blood and urine tests done to determine cause of electrolyte disorder
Treatment offered and if this led to correction of the electrolyte disorder
Imaging finding:
Type of study
Specialized imaging (with or without contrast) and images of the radiological studies: ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Kidney transplant recipient:
State reason for kidney failure
Type of kidney transplant (deceased or living donor)
Human leukocyte antigen matching
Timing of transplantation
Any prior episodes of rejection
Prescribed immunosuppressants
Kidney stone:
Presenting symptoms
Imaging studies
Study of stone composition
24-hour urine studies (if any)
Treatment offered (urological intervention or stone prophylaxis)
  1. If an element is missing or unavailable, please state the absence of the data as a limitation. This practice assures the editor and reader that every possible attempt was made to obtain the piece of information and demonstrates appropriate thought processes