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Table 1 Causes of non-traumatic spontaneous splenic rupture

From: Possible infectious causes of spontaneous splenic rupture: a case report

Neoplastic Infectious Hematologic Inflammatory Iatrogenic Primary splenic disorder
- Leukemia Viral - Hemophilia - Acute or chronic - Heparin/ Warfarin - Splenic cyst
- Lymphoma - Epstein–Barr virus - Factor XIII deficiency Pancreatitis - Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor - Splenic angiomatosis
- Polycythemia vera - Cytomegalovirus - Protein S deficiency - Primary amyloidosis - Thrombolytic therapy - Splenic peliosis
- Multiple myeloma - Human immunodeficiency virus - Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura - Lupus erythematosus - Dialysis - Splenic infarctions or venous thrombosis
- Myelodysplastic disorders - Hepatitis A/B/C - Hemolytic anemia - Rheumatoid arthritis - Lithotripsy - Portal hypertension
  - Rubella   - Polyarteritis nodosa   - Congenital malposition (i.e. short splenic pedicle)
  - Varicella     - Splenic malignancy
  Bacterial  
  - Legionellosis  
  - Bartonellosis  
  - Infective endocarditis (Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Clostridium, Actinomycosis, Pseudomonas among the top causes)  
  Other  
  - Malaria  
  - Syphilis  
  - Toxoplasma