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Table 1 Locations and forms of GPA presentation

From: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener’s) as a necrotizing gingivitis mimic: a case report

Site Presentations Frequency of disease occurrence at site throughout disease course (%)
Upper airway[1],[2] Oral or nasal ulcers, strawberry gums, strawberry tongue, unresponsive upper respiratory tract or ear ‘infections’ , otitis, vestibular nerve injury, conductive or sensorineural deafness 92
Lower airways[1],[2] Subglottic stenosis, pulmonary nodular infiltrates, pulmonary hemorrhage ‘ground-glass’ infiltrations, pleurisy 85
Kidneys[1],[3] Rapidly progressing glomerulonephritis - necrotizing 80
Musculoskeletal[1, 2] Myalgias, migratory pauciarticular or polyarticular arthritis, arthralgias 67
Eye[1],[2],[4] Scleritis, episcleritis, orbital pseudotumor, proptosis, dacrocystis 52
Skin[1],[2] Palpable purpura, ulcers, leucocytoclastic vasculitis, subcutaneous nodules, gangrene 46
Nervous system[1],[2] Peripheral neuropathy, mononeuritis multiplex, cranial neuropathy, meningitis 20
Additional rare presentations[2],[3] Myocarditis, pericarditis, cerebral vasculitis, mass lesions (brain, renal, lung, orbit, breast, prostate, ovary, parotid)