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Table 1 Magnetic resonance imaging and clinical findings of biopsy-proven cases of primary angiitis of the central nervous system

From: Radial contrast enhancement on brain magnetic resonance imaging could be diagnostic of primary angiitis of the central nervous system: a case report and review of the literature

Reference Age (y)/sex Symptoms MRI findings Location of abnormalities MRI with gadolinium contrast description Biopsy
Shoemaker et al.[13] 45/M Dysesthesias, loss of sensation, gait imbalance T2 focal areas of high signal Brainstem, cerebellum, cerebral white matter Multiple focal areas of enhancement, some were linear Small arteries infiltrated by lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils
Campi et al. [14] 50/M Progressive severe paraparesis Small punctate T2 hyperintensities Subcortical, supra- and infratentorial white matter Punctate contrast enhancement Inflammation of small vessels with lymphocytes and granulocytes
Campi et al. [14] 29/F Headache, diplopia, ataxia Small high signal foci on T2 images Supratentorial white matter Enhancement of Virchow-Robin spaces Vasculitis of small parenchymal vessels, fibrinoid necrosis
Hassan et al. [15] 38/F Tremor, gait ataxia, incoherent mentation T2 white matter hyperintensities Diffuse Contrast enhancement in a linear radiating fashion Perivascular inflammation with T cells, B cells and macrophages
Patient in this report 47/M Tremor, headache, gait imbalance T2 with diffuse hyperintensity Centrum semiovale and corona radiata Bilateral linear enhancements in a radiating fashion Perivascular non-caseating granulomas
  1. F, female; M, male; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging.