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Table 1 Causes of granulomatous and/or necrotizing lymphadenitis, with or without suppuration

From: Suppurative necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis in adult-onset Still’s disease: a case report

  Granulomas Necrosis Suppuration
  A. Infections
Viruses +
(EBV, CMV, HBV, HCV, Herpes simplex, Adenovirus, HIV)
Bacteria
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis + + +
Bartonella + + +
Tropheryma whipplei +
Francisella tularensis + + +
Brucella + + +
Spirochaetes
Treponema pallidum + + +
Chlamydia
Lymphogranuloma venereum + + +
Rickettsia
Coxiella burnetii +
Mycobacteria
Mycobacterium tuberculosis + + +
Atypical mycobacterial infection + + +
Mycobacterium leprae + + +
Parasites
Toxoplasmosis + ± +
Leishmaniasis +
Fungi
Histoplasmosis + + +
Aspergillosis +
Coccidioidomycosis + + +
Cryptococcosis + + +
  B. Neoplastic diseases
Hodgkin disease + + ±
Non-Hodgkin disease ± + ±
Metastatic carcinoma + + ±
Langerhans cell histiocytosis +
Seminoma +
Dysgerminoma +
  C. Autoimmune diseases
Systemic lupus erythematosus +
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis + + +
Churg–Strauss syndrome + +
Celiac disease +
Crohn’s disease +
Primary biliary cirrhosis + +
Kawasaki disease + +
  D. Idiopathic diseases
Sarcoidosis +
Necrotic sarcoid granulomatosis + +
Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease + +
  E. Autoinflammatory diseases
Familial Mediterranean fever +
Hyperimmunoglobulinemia-D syndrome no data no data no data
PFAPA syndrome ± ±
  1. Note: ± indicates the potential existence of the corresponding histological feature, which is however non-typical for this disease.
  2. CMV, Cytomegalovirus; EBV, Epstein–Barr virus; HBV, Hepatitis B; HCV, Hepatitis C; HIV, Human immunodeficiency virus; PFAPA, Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis.