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Table 2 Baseline and post-intervention values for functional outcome assessments*

From: Mobility training using a bionic knee orthosis in patients in a post-stroke chronic state: a case series

Test Baseline Post-training Differencea(%)* One month Differencea(%)*
10 meter walk (m/s) a
Participant 1 0.60 0.81 35 0.95 58
Participant 2 0.29 0.43 48 0.45 55
Participant 3 0.83 1.03 24 1.14 37
6 minute walk (m)
Participant 1 170 207 22 250 47
Participant 2 93 140 50 123 32
Participant 3 271 300 11 285 5
Timed up and go (s) b
Participant 1 21.4 14.5 (32) (12.4) (42)
Participant 2 21.4 23.3 9 24.0 11
Participant 3 9.14 8.94 (2) 10.1 11
Five times sit-to-stand (s) c
Participant 1 12.1 10.5 (13.7) (11.1) (8)
Participant 2 12.4 13.0 5 13.2 6
Participant 3 11.4 12.2 7 10.1 (11)
Step length (m)
Participant 1 0.49 0.56 14 0.59 20
Participant 2 0.29 0.40 38 0.39 35
Participant 3 0.54 0.59 9 0.60 11
  1. *Percentage change scores from baseline. Improvement is indicated by positive change scores for gait speed, endurance and step length and by negative change scores (indicated by parentheses) for five times sit-to-stand and timed up and go.
  2. Normative Values Table 2 :
  3. a. Average walking speed for people 60 to 69 years of age averages 1.34 m/s for males and 1.24 m/s for females. Average self-selected walking speed for patients post stroke is 0.74 m/s; Ambulation can be further classified as :household ambulators, <0.4 m/s; limited ambulators, 0.4 to 0.8 m/s; unlimited community ambulators, >0.8m/s [13].
  4. b. Timed up and go > 13.4s indicates patients are at risk of falls [14].
  5. c. Five times sit-to-stand predicts falls when the time is >11.7s for patients 60 to 69 years; >12.6 s for patients 69 to 79 years; and >14.8 s for patients 80 to 89 years [15].