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Table 2 European myelopathy score[6]

From: Operative management of a non-traumatic cervico-thoracic spondylolisthesis: a case report

Criterion Clinical situation Points
Upper motor neuron:gait function Unable to walk, wheelchair 1
Walking on a flat ground only withcane or aid 2
Climbing stairs only with aid 3
Gait clumsy, but no aid necessary 4
Normal walking and climbing stairs 5
Upper motor neuron:bladder and bowel function Retention, no control over bladder and/or bowel function 1
Inadequate miction and urinary frequency 2
Normal bladder and bowel function 3
Lower motor neuron:hand function Handwriting and eating with knife and fork impossible 1
Handwriting and eating with knife and fork impaired 2
Handwriting, tying shoe laces, or a tie clumsy 3
Normal handwriting 4
Posterior column: proprioception and coordination Getting dressed only with aid 1
Getting dressed clumsily and slowly 2
Getting dressed normally 3
Paresthesia/pain Invalidity because of pain 1
Endurable paresthesia and pain 2
No paresthesia and pain 3
Total score   5-18
  1. The lower the score, the more severe the deficits. Normal function 17 to 18; Grade 1: 13 to 16; Grade 2: 9 to 12; Grade 3: 5 to 8.