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Table 1 Clinicopathological features in case reports of extracapsular parathyroid hemorrhages

From: Neck emergency due to parathyroid adenoma bleeding: a case report

Author (year) # Clinical features Ca2+ (normal values) T Histology (Ø = cm)
Capps R (1934) [2] 1 Weakness, sore throat, cervical swelling/ecchymosis, dysphagia, dyspnea NA 5 weeks Adenoma (Ø = 7)
Berry BE (1974) [3] 1 Weakness, retrosternal pain, signs of superior vena caval compression NA 1 day Adenoma (Ø = 5)
Santos GH (1975) [4] 1 Retrosternal pain, dizziness, hypotension, hypercalcemia NA 1 day Adenoma (Ø = 8)
Jordan FT (1981) [5] 1 Anterior cervical pain, swelling and ecchymosis, dysphagia 13.3 mg/dL 1 month Hyperplasia (Ø = 6)
Roma J (1985) [6] 1 Hoarseness, dysphagia, cervical swelling, cervical-thoracic ecchymosis 3.00 mmol/L 1 day Hyperplasia
Simcic KJ (1989) [7] 1 Painful cervical swelling, dysphagia, dyspnea 4 mmol/L (2.14-2.52) 2 weeks Adenoma (Ø = 4.5)
Massard JL (1989) [8] 1 Difficulty swallowing, dysphonia, cervical pain, cervical ecchymosis 3.15 mmol/L 10 hours Adenoma
Hotes LS (1989) [9] 1 Hoarseness, dysphagia, discomfort in the anterior area, ecchymosis Normal 3 days Adenoma
Alame A (1990) [10] 1 Difficulty swallowing, dysphonia, cervical-thoracic ecchymosis 2.86 mmol/L 1 day Adenoma
Mantion G (1990) [11] 1 Dysphagia, dyspnea, ecchymosis 2.67 mmol/L 2 days Adenoma (Ø = 2.5)
Amano Y (1993) [12] 1 Hoarseness, dysphagia, cervical swelling and ecchymosis Normal 2 days Adenoma (Ø = 5.6)
Korkis AM (1993) [13] 1 Hoarseness, dysphagia, cervical swelling and cervical-thoracic ecchymosis 11.6 mg/dL 1 day Adenoma (Ø = 4)
Jougon J (1994) [14] 1 Dysphagia, cervical swelling and cervical-thoracic ecchymosis 2.9 mmol/L 1 day Adenoma (Ø = 3)
Menegaux F (1997) [15] 1 Cervical pain, dysphagia, dyspnea 2.62 mmol/L 1 day Adenoma
Hellier WPL (1997) [16] 1 Dysphagia, dysphasia, cervical-thoracic ecchymosis Elevated 1 day Adenoma
Ku P (1997) [17] 1 Hoarseness, cervical pain and ecchymosis 3.15 mg/dL 1 day Adenoma (Ø = 2)
Kihara M (2001) [18] 1 Painful cervical swelling and cervical-thoracic ecchymosis Normal 1 month Adenoma (Ø = 2)
Kozlow (2001) [19] 1 Dysphagia, odynophagia, cervical swelling 11.3 mg/dL (8.4-10.2) 7 days Adenoma
Nakajima J (2002) [20] 1 Retrosternal pain, cervical-thoracic ecchymosis Normal 3 weeks Adenoma (Ø = 3.5)
Govindaraj S (2003) [21] 1 Hyper-normo-calcemia, right-sided headaches, severe throat pain 13 mg/dL 2 weeks Adenoma
Taniguchi I (2003) [22] 1 Cervical swelling, pain, dysphagia, cervical-thoracic ecchymosis NA 1 month Cyst (Ø = 6)
Maweja S (2003) [23] 2 Painful cervical swelling and cervical-thoracic ecchymosis 2.57; 2.80 mmol/L 2 days Adenoma
Tonerini M (2004) [24] 1 Painful cervical swelling NA 1 day Adenoma
Akimoto T (2005) [25] 1 Left pleural effusion in IPT II at chest X-ray and computed tomography scan Elevated 1 day Hyperplasia
Devezè A (2006) [1] 2 1. Dysphagia cervical hematoma, hypercalcemia 2.57 mmol/L 1 week 1. Adenoma
   2. Latero-cervical pain and ecchymosis   5 days 2. Adenoma
Merant-Boschin I (2009) 1 Painful cervical swelling, dysphonia, dyspnea 3.18 mmol/L (2.10-2.55) 2 days Adenoma (Ø = 4.0)
  1. Notes: #, number of cases described; [Ca2+]: calcium level; T: time of onset; Normal: in the normal range; NA: Not assessed.