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Table 2 Non-malignant syndromes that can cause pancytopenia without HLH

From: Prolonged hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis syndrome as an initial presentation of Hodgkin lymphoma: a case report

Infectious
Parvovirus B-19
Visceral leishmaniasis
Bone marrow failure
Aplastic anemia
Myelodysplastic syndrome
Myelofibrosis
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Folate deficiency
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Sarcoidosis
Fanconi anemia
Gaucher disease
Niemann-Pick disease
Inflammatory/Immune
Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease
Evan's syndrome
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome
Aplastic anemia
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Toxic
Alcohol
Arsenic
Cyanide
Quinine
Methotrexate
Terfinabine
Tocainamide
  1. Parvovirus and visceral leishmaniasis can also cause pancytopenia by inducing HLH. A diversity of infections can cause pancytopenia when associated with HLH. These are reviewed in Ref. 4 and at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol6no6/fisman_refs.htm.