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Table 1 Differential diagnosis of acute encephalomyelopathy after bone marrow transplantation for leukaemia

From: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis mimicking late CNS relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: case report

Metabolic, nutrient and electrolyte disturbances
Treatment side-effects
Cyclosporin (posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome)
Amphotericin (parkinsonism)
Radiation sequelae (arteriopathy, vacuolating encephalomyelopathy)
Infections
Viruses (HSV, VZV, CMV, EBV, HHV6, HHV7, JC, BK, adenovirus, West Nile Virus)
Parasites (Toxoplasma, amoeba)
Fungi (Aspergillus, Candida)
Bacteria (abcesses, Listeria, Mycoplasma, TB)
CNS relapse of leukaemia
Inflammation
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
Multiple sclerosis
Vasculitides (SLE, CNS angiitis)
Haemorrhage/infarction
Thrombocytopoenic thrombotic purpura
Secondary to radiation arteriopathy
Idiopathic subarachnoid and subdural haemorrhage