Adhesions due to peritoneal carcinomatosis caused by a renal carcinoma leading to mechanical gastric outlet obstruction: a case report
© Mocciaro et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Received: 3 November 2010
Accepted: 13 July 2011
Published: 13 July 2011
Gastric outlet obstruction is a clinical syndrome caused by a variety of mechanical obstructions. Peptic ulcer disease used to be responsible for most gastric outlet obstruction, but in the last 40 years the prevalence of malignant tumors has risen significantly. Adhesive disease is an infrequent and insidious cause of mechanical gastric outlet obstruction.
We report the case of a 78-year-old Caucasian man who had a clinical history of a right nephrectomy for malignancy three years earlier and who was admitted for a severe gastric outlet obstruction (score of 1) confirmed both by an upper endoscopy and by a fluoroscopic view after contrast injection. A computed tomography scan and a laparotomy, with omental biopsies, showed a peritoneal carcinomatosis with the development of abdominal adhesions that prompted an abnormal gastric rotation around the perpendicular axis of his antrum with a dislocation in the empty space of his right kidney. Symptoms disappeared after surgical bypass through a gastrojejunostomy.
Our patient experienced a very rare complication characterized by the development of adhesions due to peritoneal carcinomatosis caused by a renal carcinoma treated with nephrectomy. These adhesions prompted an abnormal dislocation of his antrum, as an internal hernia, in the empty space of his right kidney.
Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a clinical syndrome caused by a variety of mechanical obstructions (for example, malignancy, peptic ulcer disease, Crohn disease, and chronic pancreatitis). GOO is typically characterized by epigastric abdominal pain, early post-prandial vomiting with or without nausea, and weight loss. Before 1970, peptic ulcer disease was responsible for most GOO, but since the introduction of proton pump inhibitors in clinical practice 40 years ago, the prevalence of malignant tumors as the cause of GOO has risen to between 50% and 80% of all cases . Adhesive disease from previous surgery is an infrequent cause of GOO but is a common cause of small bowel obstructions .
Symptomatic adhesions after surgery are frequent (25% of readmissions in the first post-operative year) , and the risks increase considerably in the presence of peritoneal carcinomatosis . However, adhesive disease can serve as an axis for gastric rotation around the long or the perpendicular axis of the stomach.
To the best of our knowledge, no data on the development of post-nephrectomy adhesions in patients operated on for renal malignancy have been published. In a 10-year study of 871 living-donor nephrectomies, less than 1% of patients experienced major complications and a mere 8% developed minor complications. There were no reports of adhesive disease . A recent meta-analysis on laparoscopic versus open live-donor nephrectomy showed that laparoscopy is safer and found no development of adhesive disease after either type of surgery . There is an interesting case report on an internal hernia in the retroperitoneum at the site of a previous nephrectomy in a 25-year-old living donor who developed signs and symptoms of partial small bowel obstruction .
In the long-term post-nephrectomy follow-up of patients with renal malignancy, the major concern is metastatic disease. The greatest risk of recurrence following resection for renal cell carcinoma is within three to five years after the operation, with predominant lung, bone, liver, brain, and local-regional involvement . However, recurrence can occur anywhere, including the peritoneum, even if it is largely reported to be a consequence of ovarian, colonic, or hepatic malignancies. It is associated with a poor prognosis, limited treatment , and the development of adhesions with obstructive symptoms .
Our patient experienced a very rare complication characterized by the development of adhesions due to peritoneal carcinomatosis caused by a previous renal carcinoma treated with nephrectomy but not chemotherapy. These adhesions prompted an abnormal gastric rotation around the perpendicular axis of his antrum, with a dislocation, as an internal hernia, in the empty space of his right kidney. This case is interesting for two reasons: (a) GOO can occur as a late adhesive complication after abdominal surgery or peritoneal carcinomatosis or both, and (b) despite the low frequency of incidence, a late metastasis from renal carcinoma can involve the peritoneum without ascites but with severe obstructive symptoms.
This report highlights the importance of regular out-patient visits in patients with a history of neoplasms, even if they have undergone surgery and especially if they have not been treated with chemotherapy. Particular attention should be paid to new obstructive symptoms as possible consequences of late post-surgical or unusual peritoneal metastatic complications.
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.
gastric outlet obstruction
Gastric Outlet Obstruction Scoring System.
We thank Warren Blumberg for editorial assistance.
- Chowdhury A, Dhali GK, Banerjee PK: Etiology of gastric outlet obstruction. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996, 91: 1679-PubMed
- Parker MC, Ellis H, Moran BJ, Thompson JN, Wilson MS, Menzies D, McGuire A, Lower AM, Hawthorn RJ, O'Briena F, Buchan S, Crowe AM: Postoperative adhesions: ten-year follow-up of 12,584 patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Dis Colon Rectum. 2001, 44: 822-10.1007/BF02234701.View ArticlePubMed
- Adler DG, Baron TH: Endoscopic palliation of malignant gastric outlet obstruction using self-expanding metal stents: experience in 36 patients. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002, 97: 72-78. 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2002.05423.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Idelevich E, Kashtan H, Mavor E, Brenner B: Small bowel obstruction caused by secondary tumors. Surg Oncol. 2006, 15: 29-32. 10.1016/j.suronc.2006.05.004.View ArticlePubMed
- Johnson EM, Remucal MJ, Gillingham KJ, Dahms RA, Najarian JS, Matas AJ: Complications and risks of living donor nephrectomy. Transplantation. 1997, 64: 1124-10.1097/00007890-199710270-00007.View ArticlePubMed
- Nanidis TG, Antcliffe D, Kokkinos C, Borysiewicz CA, Darzi AW, Tekkis PP, Papalois VE: Laparoscopic versus open live donor nephrectomy in renal transplantation: a meta-analysis. Ann Surg. 2008, 247: 58-10.1097/SLA.0b013e318153fd13.View ArticlePubMed
- Knoepp L, Smith M, Huey J, Mancino A, Barber H: Complication after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: a case report and review. Transplantation. 1999, 68: 449-10.1097/00007890-199908150-00019.View ArticlePubMed
- Ljungberg B, Alamdari FI, Rasmuson T, Roos G: Follow-up guidelines for nonmetastatic renal cell carcinoma based on the occurrence of metastases after radical nephrectomy. BJU Int. 1999, 84: 405-411.View ArticlePubMed
- Davies JM, O'Neil B: Peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastrointestinal origin: natural history and treatment options. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2009, 18: 913-919. 10.1517/13543780902939151.View ArticlePubMed
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.