Giant pyogenic granuloma of the thigh: a case report
© Nthumba; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2008
Received: 04 July 2007
Accepted: 31 March 2008
Published: 31 March 2008
Pyogenic granuloma or lobular capillary hemangioma remains an etiopathological enigma, with trauma, inflammatory and infectious agents being the commonest suspected causative agents. These lesions affect mucous membranes of the upper aero-digestive tract, and skin. HIV patients diagnosed with pyogenic granuloma present with multiple lesions, caused by Bartonella spp.
A 28-year-old woman presented with a solitary large tumor on a skin graft donor site on her left thigh. On excision and histological examination the tumor was found to be a lobular capillary hemangioma (pyogenic granuloma). Further investigation in search of a possible explanation for this unusual presentation revealed HIV infection as the underlying cause.
This report underscores the fact that the full spectrum of presentation of HIV infection is still unknown. Unusual or unexpected presentations should arouse suspicion of underlying immunosuppression, especially in HIV endemic areas.
The term pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a misnomer, and lobular capillary hemangioma is the currently preferred term [1–3]. PG is a benign lesion that occurs on skin and mucosal surfaces of the proximal aero-digestive tracts, but has also been reported to occur subcutaneously, intravenously, in the small bowel, colon and rectum and on burn scars [4–6]. Although cutaneous PG may present as multiple lesions and necrosis, invasion of surrounding tissues is never seen. PG lesions have no malignant potential, but up to 15% may recur following excision .
A 28-year-old female patient presented to AIC Kijabe Hospital (KH) with a large, ulcerated mass on her left thigh which had been present for the previous 6 months.
The mass was covered by a thick creamy-white exudate. It had a purplish-grey hue around the rolled edges, and measured 25 × 15 × 5 cm. Old blood clots spread across the mass indicated past bleeding episodes. The proximal edge was continuous with the healed skin donor site. She had a healed scar on her leg, and was otherwise in good health.
The cause of PG is not known. However, trauma, hormonal influences, an unknown angiogenic factor; inflammatory and infectious agents, have all been hypothesized as possible factors in causation [2, 7]. Mucosal and cutaneous PG appear to be etiologically different, with a higher incidence of mucosal PGs. Many believe that mucosal PGs, which have a higher female preponderance, are causally related to estrogens, while cutaneous PGs are not9. Estrogens and other hormones appear to exaggerate the inflammatory responses of gingival tissue, particularly in pregnancy, and lead to the development of PGs in up to 2% of pregnant women (PG gravidarum) [2, 8].
Both bacillary angiomatosis (disseminated vascular lesions in immunosuppressed patients), and verruga peruana (crops of vascular nodules in immunocompetent persons), are vascular lesions that resemble PGs, clinically and histologically, and are caused by infection with Bartonella spp. Because of this histopathological similarity, some workers have suggested that PG may be caused by Bartonella spp. infection . Others have found no association [10, 11]. We were unable to exclude Bartonella spp. infection as a possible cause in this patient.
This patient presented with a solitary giant PG on a skin graft donor site, and was found to be HIV positive, an unusual combination, as most HIV-related PGs reported in literature present as multiple lesions, and on staining may show evidence of infection by Bartonella spp. [10, 12, 13].
Most reports suggest that PGs grow to a maximum of 2 cm, save for Choudhary et al. and Tursen et al. who have reported larger lesions [14, 15]. Nonetheless, a PG of a size similar to this case has not been reported before.
Skin graft donor sites are known to cause dyspigmentation, hypertrophic scars and keloid. No previous report has been made of a PG arising from a skin graft donor site.
This case report presents a rare manifestation of HIV infection, presenting first as a solitary giant PG, and highlights the wide spectrum of unusual presentations of HIV infection. Thus unusual or unexpected presentations should arouse suspicion of underlying immunosuppression, especially in HIV endemic areas.
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for the publication of this paper and any accompanying images. A copy of the consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.
List of abbreviations used
Split Thickness Skin Graft
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
I am grateful to the AIC Kijabe Hospital Pathology Department for help with the slides.
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